The Skeletal System - F ??Parts of the skeletal system •Bones (skeleton) •Joints •Cartilages •Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to ... •Movement due to attached skeletal muscles
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Essentials of Human Anatomy & PhysiologyThe Skeletal SystemThe Skeletal SystemThe Skeletal SystemSlide 5.1Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Parts of the skeletal systemBones (skeleton) JointsCartilages Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to muscle) Divided into two divisionsAxial skeleton Appendicular skeleton limbs and girdleFunctions of BonesFunctions of BonesSlide 5.2 Support of the body Protection of soft organs Movement due to attached skeletal muscles Storage of minerals and fats Blood cell formationBones of the Human BodyBones of the Human BodySlide 5.3 The skeleton has 206 bones Two basic types of bone tissueCompact bone HomogeneousSpongy bone Small needle-like pieces of bone Many open spacesFigure 5.2bClassification of BonesClassification of BonesSlide 5.4a Long bonesTypically longer than wideHave a shaft with heads at both endsContain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerusClassification of BonesClassification of BonesSlide 5.4b Short bonesGenerally cube-shapeContain mostly spongy boneExamples: Carpals, tarsalsClassification of Bones on the Classification of Bones on the Basis of ShapeBasis of ShapeSlide 5.4cFigure 5.1Classification of BonesClassification of BonesSlide 5.5a Flat bonesThin and flattenedUsually curvedThin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy boneExamples: Skull, ribs, sternumClassification of BonesClassification of BonesSlide 5.5b Irregular bones Irregular shapeDo not fit into other bone classification categoriesExample: Vertebrae and hipClassification of Bones on the Classification of Bones on the Basis of ShapeBasis of ShapeSlide 5.5cFigure 5.1Gross Anatomy of a Long BoneGross Anatomy of a Long BoneSlide 5.6 DiaphysisShaftComposed of compact bone EpiphysisEnds of the boneComposed mostly of spongy boneFigure 5.2aStructures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long BoneSlide 5.7 Periosteum Outside covering of the diaphysis Fibrous connective tissue membrane Sharpeys fibers Secure periosteum to underlying bone Arteries Supply bone cells with nutrientsFigure 5.2cStructures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long BoneSlide 5.8a Articular cartilageCovers the external surface of the epiphysesMade of hyaline cartilageDecreases friction at joint surfaces Figure 5.2aStructures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long BoneSlide 5.8b Medullary cavityCavity of the shaftContains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adultsContains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants Figure 5.2aBone Markings Bone Markings -- Page 119Page 119Slide 5.9 Surface features of bones Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments Passages for nerves and blood vessels Categories of bone markingsProjections and processes grow out from the bone surfaceDepressions or cavities indentationsMicroscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of BoneSlide 5 10a Osteon (Haversian System)A unit of bone Central (Haversian) canalOpening in the center of an osteonCarries blood vessels and nerves Perforating (Volkmans) canalCanal perpendicular to the central canalCarries blood vessels and nervesMicroscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of BoneSlide 5 10bFigure 5.3Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of BoneSlide 5 11a LacunaeCavities containing bone cells (osteocytes)Arranged in concentric rings LamellaeRings around the central canalSites of lacunae Figure 5.3Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of BoneSlide 5 11b CanaliculiTiny canalsRadiate from the central canal to lacunaeForm a transport systemFigure 5.3Changes in the Human SkeletonChanges in the Human SkeletonSlide 5.12 In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone Cartilage remains in isolated areasBridge of the noseParts of ribs Joints Bone GrowthBone GrowthSlide 5 13a Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhoodNew cartilage is continuously formedOlder cartilage becomes ossifiedCartilage is broken downBone replaces cartilageBone GrowthBone GrowthSlide 5 13b Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stopsBones change shape somewhatBones grow in widthLong Bone Formation and GrowthLong Bone Formation and GrowthSlide 5 14aFigure 5.4aTypes of Bone CellsTypes of Bone CellsSlide 5.15 Osteocytes Mature bone cells Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells Osteoclasts Bone-destroying cells Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclastsBone FracturesBone FracturesSlide 5.16 A break in a bone Types of bone fracturesClosed (simple) fracture break that does not penetrate the skinOpen (compound) fracture broken bone penetrates through the skin Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilizationRealignment of the boneCommon Types of FracturesCommon Types of FracturesSlide 5.17Table 5.2Repair of Bone FracturesRepair of Bone FracturesSlide 5.18 Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patchStages in the Healing of a Bone Stages in the Healing of a Bone FractureFractureSlide 5.19Figure 5.5The Axial SkeletonThe Axial SkeletonSlide 5 20a Forms the longitudinal part of the body Divided into three partsSkullVertebral columnBony thoraxThe Axial SkeletonThe Axial SkeletonSlide 5 20bFigure 5.6The SkullThe SkullSlide 5 21a Two sets of bonesCraniumFacial bones Bones are joined by sutures Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable jointThe SkullThe SkullSlide 5 21bFigure 5.7Bones of the SkullBones of the SkullSlide 5.22Figure 5.11Human Skull, Superior ViewHuman Skull, Superior ViewSlide 5.23Figure 5.8Human Skull, Inferior ViewHuman Skull, Inferior ViewSlide 5.24Figure 5.9ParanasalParanasal SinusesSinusesSlide 5 25a Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavityFigure 5.10ParanasalParanasal SinusesSinusesSlide 5 25b Functions of paranasal sinuses Lighten the skullGive resonance and amplification to voiceFigure 5.10The Hyoid BoneThe Hyoid BoneSlide 5.26 The only bone that does not articulate with another bone Serves as a moveable base for the tongueFigure 5.12The Fetal SkullThe Fetal SkullSlide 5 27a The fetal skull is large compared to the infants total body lengthFigure 5.13The Fetal SkullThe Fetal SkullSlide 5 27b Fontanelles fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bonesAllow the brain to growConvert to bone within 24 months after birthFigure 5.13The Vertebral ColumnThe Vertebral ColumnSlide 5.28 Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs The spine has a normal curvature Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Figure 5.14Structure of a Typical VertebraeStructure of a Typical VertebraeSlide 5.29Figure 5.16The Bony ThoraxThe Bony ThoraxSlide 5 31a Forms a cage to protect major organsFigure 5.19aThe Bony ThoraxThe Bony ThoraxSlide 5 31b Made-up of three partsSternumRibsThoracic vertebraeFigure 5.19aThe The AppendicularAppendicular SkeletonSkeletonSlide 5 32a Limbs (appendages) Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdleThe The AppendicularAppendicular SkeletonSkeletonSlide 5 32bFigure 5.6cThe Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdleThe Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdleSlide 5.33 Composed of two bonesClavicle collarboneScapula shoulder blade These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movementBones of the Shoulder GirdleBones of the Shoulder GirdleSlide 5 34aFigure 5.20a, bBones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper LimbSlide 5 35a The arm is formed by a single boneHumerusFigure 5.21a, bBones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper LimbSlide 5 35b The forearm has two bones Ulna RadiusFigure 5.21cBones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper LimbSlide 5.36 The handCarpals wristMetacarpals palmPhalanges fingersFigure 5.22Bones of the Pelvic GirdleBones of the Pelvic GirdleSlide 5.37 Hip bones Composed of three pair of fused bones Ilium Ischium Pubic bone The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis Protects several organs Reproductive organs Urinary bladder Part of the large intestineThe PelvisThe PelvisSlide 5 38aFigure 5.23aGender Differences of the PelvisGender Differences of the PelvisSlide 5.39Figure 5.23cBones of the Lower LimbsBones of the Lower LimbsSlide 5 40a The thigh has one boneFemur thigh boneFigure 5.35a, bBones of the Lower LimbsBones of the Lower LimbsSlide 5 40b The leg has two bonesTibiaFibulaFigure 5.35cBones of the Lower LimbsBones of the Lower LimbsSlide 5.41 The footTarsus ankleMetatarsals solePhalanges toesFigure 5.25JointsJointsSlide 5.43 Articulations of bones Functions of jointsHold bones togetherAllow for mobility Ways joints are classifiedFunctionallyStructurallyFunctional Classification of JointsFunctional Classification of JointsSlide 5.44 Synarthroses immovable joints Amphiarthroses slightly moveable joints Diarthroses freely moveable jointsStructural Classification of JointsStructural Classification of JointsSlide 5.45 Fibrous jointsGenerally immovable Cartilaginous joints Immovable or slightly moveable Synovial jointsFreely moveableFibrous JointsFibrous JointsSlide 5.46 Bones united by fibrous tissue synarthrosis or largely immovable.Figure 5.27d, eCartilaginous Joints Cartilaginous Joints mostly mostly amphiarthrosisamphiarthrosisSlide 5.47 Bones connected by cartilage ExamplesPubic symphysis IntervertebraljointsFigure 5.27b, cSynovial JointsSynovial JointsSlide 5.48 Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavityFigure 5.27fhFeatures of Synovial JointsFeatures of Synovial Joints--DiarthrosesDiarthrosesSlide 5.49 Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones Joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid Ligaments reinforce the jointStructures Associated with the Structures Associated with the Synovial JointSynovial JointSlide 5.50 Bursae flattened fibrous sacsLined with synovial membranesFilled with synovial fluidNot actually part of the joint Tendon sheathElongated bursa that wraps around a tendonThe Synovial JointThe Synovial JointSlide 5.51Figure 5.28Types of Synovial Joints Based on Types of Synovial Joints Based on ShapeShapeSlide 5 52aFigure 5.29acTypes of Synovial Joints Based on Types of Synovial Joints Based on ShapeShapeSlide 5 52bFigure 5.29dfInflammatory Conditions Inflammatory Conditions Associated with JointsAssociated with JointsSlide 5.53 Bursitis inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction Tendonitis inflammation of tendon sheaths Arthritis inflammatory or degenerative diseases of jointsOver 100 different types The most widespread crippling disease in the United StatesClinical Forms of ArthritisClinical Forms of ArthritisSlide 5 54a OsteoarthritisMost common chronic arthritisProbably related to normal aging processes Rheumatoid arthritisAn autoimmune disease the immune system attacks the jointsSymptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain jointsOften leads to deformitiesClinical Forms of ArthritisClinical Forms of ArthritisSlide 5 54b Gouty Arthritis Inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of urate crystals from the bloodCan usually be controlled with diet
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