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  • Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

    The Skeletal System

  • The Skeletal SystemThe Skeletal System

    Slide 5.1Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Parts of the skeletal systemBones (skeleton)

    Joints

    Cartilages

    Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to muscle)

    Divided into two divisionsAxial skeleton

    Appendicular skeleton limbs and girdle

  • Functions of BonesFunctions of Bones

    Slide 5.2

    Support of the body

    Protection of soft organs

    Movement due to attached skeletal muscles

    Storage of minerals and fats

    Blood cell formation

  • Bones of the Human BodyBones of the Human Body

    Slide 5.3

    The skeleton has 206 bones

    Two basic types of bone tissueCompact bone Homogeneous

    Spongy bone Small needle-like

    pieces of bone

    Many open spacesFigure 5.2b

  • Classification of BonesClassification of Bones

    Slide 5.4a

    Long bones

    Typically longer than wide

    Have a shaft with heads at both ends

    Contain mostly compact bone

    Examples: Femur, humerus

  • Classification of BonesClassification of Bones

    Slide 5.4b

    Short bones

    Generally cube-shape

    Contain mostly spongy bone

    Examples: Carpals, tarsals

  • Classification of Bones on the Classification of Bones on the Basis of ShapeBasis of Shape

    Slide 5.4c

    Figure 5.1

  • Classification of BonesClassification of Bones

    Slide 5.5a

    Flat bones

    Thin and flattened

    Usually curved

    Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone

    Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum

  • Classification of BonesClassification of Bones

    Slide 5.5b

    Irregular bones

    Irregular shape

    Do not fit into other bone classification categories

    Example: Vertebrae and hip

  • Classification of Bones on the Classification of Bones on the Basis of ShapeBasis of Shape

    Slide 5.5c

    Figure 5.1

  • Gross Anatomy of a Long BoneGross Anatomy of a Long Bone

    Slide 5.6

    DiaphysisShaft

    Composed of compact bone

    EpiphysisEnds of the bone

    Composed mostly of spongy bone

    Figure 5.2a

  • Structures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long Bone

    Slide 5.7

    Periosteum Outside covering of

    the diaphysis Fibrous connective

    tissue membrane

    Sharpeys fibers Secure periosteum to

    underlying bone

    Arteries Supply bone cells

    with nutrientsFigure 5.2c

  • Structures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long Bone

    Slide 5.8a

    Articular cartilage

    Covers the external surface of the epiphyses

    Made of hyaline cartilage

    Decreases friction at joint surfaces Figure 5.2a

  • Structures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long Bone

    Slide 5.8b

    Medullary cavity

    Cavity of the shaft

    Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults

    Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants Figure 5.2a

  • Bone Markings Bone Markings -- Page 119Page 119

    Slide 5.9

    Surface features of bones

    Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments

    Passages for nerves and blood vessels

    Categories of bone markings

    Projections and processes grow out from the bone surface

    Depressions or cavities indentations

  • Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone

    Slide 5 10a

    Osteon (Haversian System)A unit of bone

    Central (Haversian) canalOpening in the center of an osteon

    Carries blood vessels and nerves

    Perforating (Volkmans) canalCanal perpendicular to the central canal

    Carries blood vessels and nerves

  • Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone

    Slide 5 10b

    Figure 5.3

  • Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone

    Slide 5 11a

    LacunaeCavities containing

    bone cells (osteocytes)

    Arranged in concentric rings

    LamellaeRings around the

    central canalSites of lacunae Figure 5.3

  • Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone

    Slide 5 11b

    CanaliculiTiny canals

    Radiate from the central canal to lacunae

    Form a transport system

    Figure 5.3

  • Changes in the Human SkeletonChanges in the Human Skeleton

    Slide 5.12

    In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage

    During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone

    Cartilage remains in isolated areas

    Bridge of the nose

    Parts of ribs

    Joints

  • Bone GrowthBone Growth

    Slide 5 13a

    Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood

    New cartilage is continuously formed

    Older cartilage becomes ossified

    Cartilage is broken down

    Bone replaces cartilage

  • Bone GrowthBone Growth

    Slide 5 13b

    Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops

    Bones change shape somewhat

    Bones grow in width

  • Long Bone Formation and GrowthLong Bone Formation and Growth

    Slide 5 14a

    Figure 5.4a

  • Types of Bone CellsTypes of Bone Cells

    Slide 5.15

    Osteocytes Mature bone cells

    Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells

    Osteoclasts Bone-destroying cells Break down bone matrix for remodeling and

    release of calcium

    Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts

  • Bone FracturesBone Fractures

    Slide 5.16

    A break in a bone

    Types of bone fracturesClosed (simple) fracture break that does not

    penetrate the skin

    Open (compound) fracture broken bone penetrates through the skin

    Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilizationRealignment of the bone

  • Common Types of FracturesCommon Types of Fractures

    Slide 5.17Table 5.2

  • Repair of Bone FracturesRepair of Bone Fractures

    Slide 5.18

    Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed

    Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus

    Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus

    Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch

  • Stages in the Healing of a Bone Stages in the Healing of a Bone FractureFracture

    Slide 5.19

    Figure 5.5

  • The Axial SkeletonThe Axial Skeleton

    Slide 5 20a

    Forms the longitudinal part of the body

    Divided into three partsSkull

    Vertebral column

    Bony thorax

  • The Axial SkeletonThe Axial Skeleton

    Slide 5 20b

    Figure 5.6

  • The SkullThe Skull

    Slide 5 21a

    Two sets of bones

    Cranium

    Facial bones

    Bones are joined by sutures

    Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint

  • The SkullThe Skull

    Slide 5 21b

    Figure 5.7

  • Bones of the SkullBones of the Skull

    Slide 5.22

    Figure 5.11

  • Human Skull, Superior ViewHuman Skull, Superior View

    Slide 5.23

    Figure 5.8

  • Human Skull, Inferior ViewHuman Skull, Inferior View

    Slide 5.24

    Figure 5.9

  • ParanasalParanasal SinusesSinuses

    Slide 5 25a

    Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity

    Figure 5.10

  • ParanasalParanasal SinusesSinuses

    Slide 5 25b

    Functions of paranasal sinuses Lighten the skullGive resonance and amplification to voice

    Figure 5.10

  • The Hyoid BoneThe Hyoid Bone

    Slide 5.26

    The only bone that does not articulate with another bone

    Serves as a moveable base for the tongue

    Figure 5.12

  • The Fetal SkullThe Fetal Skull

    Slide 5 27a

    The fetal skull is large compared to the infants total body length

    Figure 5.13

  • The Fetal SkullThe Fetal Skull

    Slide 5 27b

    Fontanelles fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones

    Allow the brain to grow

    Convert to bone within 24 months after birth

    Figure 5.13

  • The Vertebral ColumnThe Vertebral Column

    Slide 5.28

    Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs

    The spine has a normal curvature

    Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Figure 5.14

  • Structure of a Typical VertebraeStructure of a Typical Vertebrae

    Slide 5.29

    Figure 5.16

  • The Bony ThoraxThe Bony Thorax

    Slide 5 31a

    Forms a cage to protect major organs

    Figure 5.19a

  • The Bony ThoraxThe Bony Thorax

    Slide 5 31b

    Made-up of three parts

    Sternum

    Ribs

    Thoracic vertebrae

    Figure 5.19a

  • The The AppendicularAppendicular SkeletonSkeleton

    Slide 5 32a

    Limbs (appendages)

    Pectoral girdle

    Pelvic girdle

  • The The AppendicularAppendicular SkeletonSkeleton

    Slide 5 32b

    Figure 5.6c

  • The Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdleThe Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle

    Slide 5.33

    Composed of two bones

    Clavicle collarbone

    Scapula shoulder blade

    These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement

  • Bones of the Shoulder GirdleBones of the Shoulder Girdle

    Slide 5 34a

    Figure 5.20a, b

  • Bones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper Limb

    Slide 5 35a

    The arm is formed by a single bone

    Humerus

    Figure 5.21a, b

  • Bones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper Limb

    Slide 5 35b

    The forearm has two bones

    Ulna

    Radius

    Figure 5.21c

  • Bones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper Limb

    Slide 5

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