skeletal system fidya, drg, m.si. part of skeletal system skeleton cartilages ligaments joint...

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  • Slide 1
  • Skeletal System Fidya, drg, M.Si
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  • Part of Skeletal System Skeleton Cartilages Ligaments Joint Consist of : Birth skeletal 270 Adult skeletal 207/206 Why different?
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  • Function of Skeletal Support Storage of minerals Blood cell production Protection Body movement
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  • FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON Supports the body. The bones of the lower limbs support the entire body when we are standing, and the pelvic girdle supports the the abdominal cavity Protects soft body part The bones of the skull protect the brain; The rib cage protects the heart and lungs. Produces blood cells All bones in the fetus have red bone marrow that produces blood cells. In the adult, only certain bones produce blood cells.
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  • Stores minerals and fat All bones have a matrix that contains calcium phosphate, a source of calcium ions and phosphate ions in the blood. Fat is stored in yellow bone marrow Along with the muscles, permits flexible body movement While articulations ( joints ) occur between all the bones, we associate body movement in particular with the bones of the limbs
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  • Skeletal System Divide into 2 division: Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton
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  • Skeletal System Axial Skeleton Skull Hyoid Bone Auditory ossicle Vertebral Column Rib cage Appendicular skeleton Pectoral gridle Upper extremitas Pelvic gridle Lower extremitas
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  • Skull Consist of: Cranial bone (8) frontal (1) parietal (2) occipital (1) temporal (2) sphenoid (1) ethmoid (1) Facial bone (14) maxilla (2) palatine (2) zygomatic (2) lacrimal (2) nasal (2) vomer (1) inferior nasal concha (2) mandible (1)
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  • Mandible Forms the lower jaw Largest, strongest bone of the face It has a body and two upwardly projecting sections called rami Houses lower dentition
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  • Hyoid Bones The hyoid bone above the larynx below the mandible Supports the tongue Assists in swallowing
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  • Os Hyoid Unique part of the skeleton not attach directly to any other bone. Located: the neck region, below the mandible. Suspended from the styloid process of the temporal bone by the stylohyoid muscles and ligaments. Has a body, two lesser cornua extending anteriorly, and two greater cornua, which project posteriorly to the stylohyoid ligaments. Supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. It may be palpated by placing a thumb and a finger on either side of the upper neck under the lateral portions of the mandible and firmly squeezing medially.
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  • In case: Fracture Hyoid This bone is carefully examined in an autopsy when strangulation is suspected, because it is frequently fractured during strangulation. However, this is not necessarily the case in children and adolescents, where the hyoid bone is still flexible as ossification is yet to be completed
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  • Auditory ossicle Three small paired bones, called auditory ossicles Located within the middle- ear cavities in the petrous part of the temporal bones. From outer to inner, the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup). Their movements transmit sound impulses through the middle-ear
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  • Vertebral Column Composed of 33 individual vertebrae, some of which are fused. Consist of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 4 to 5 fused sacral, and 3 or 5 fused coccygeal Adult vertebral column composed of a total of 26 movable parts. Vertebrae are separated by fibrocartilaginous intervertebral discs. Secured to each other by interlocking processes and binding ligaments. Between the vertebrae are openings called intervertebral foramina that allow passage of spinal nerves.
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  • General structure of vertebrae Common pattern Body or centrum Vertebral arch lamina pedicle Vertebral foramen Spinous process Muscles attach Transverse process Muscles attach
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  • General structure of vertebrae Interlocking pattern Superior and inferior processes interlock The inferior from above and the superior from the vertebrae below form a movable joint The movement contributes to spinal rotation Superior Articular Process
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  • Regional Characteristic: Cervical Body is oval, but wide side to side C3 - C7 Spinous process is short and bifid (split) except in C7 Vertebral foramen is triangular Transverse processes contain foramina for blood vessels leading to brain
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  • Cervical Vertebrae C1 Lateral masses articulates with the occipital condyles of the skull
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  • Cervical Vertebrae C1 Inferior articular surface articulates with C2 below Body of the Vertebrae is missing
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  • Cervical Vertebrae C2 The axis has the odontoid process or dens is its unique feature The dens is the missing body of the atlas which fuses with the atlas during embryonic development
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  • Regional Characteristic: Cervical Spinous processes project directly posteriorly Superior facets directed superoposteriorly Inferior facets directed inferoanteriorly Flexion/extension, lateral flexion and rotation
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  • Regional Characteristic: Thoracic Body is larger than cervical; heart shaped Spinous process is long and sharp Vertebral foramen is circular Transverse processes project posteriorly and bear facets for ribs
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  • Regional Characteristic: Lumbar Body is massive and kidney shaped Spinous processes are short and blunt Vertebral foramen is triangular Transverse processes are perpendicular to spinous process but has no special features
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  • Regional Characteristic: Lumbar Spinous process projects posteriorly Superior facets directed medially Inferior facets directed laterally Flexion/extension, some lateral flexion, rotation prevented
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  • Sacral Ala are fused remnants of transverse processes that articulate with hip bones to form the sacro iliac joints of the pelvis Sacral promontory Center of gravity is 1 cm posterior of this point Transverse line are sites of vertebral fusion Sacral foramina transmit blood vessels and nerves Sacralpromontory Ala
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  • Sacral On the posterior aspect median sacral crest are fused spinous processes The vertebral canal continues inside the sacrum as the sacral canal Sacral hiatus is at the inferior end of the sacral canal Superior articular surface form a joint with the spinal column
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  • Coccyx Coccyx articulates with sacrum
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  • Sternum Located on the anterior midline of the thorax Consists of three fused bones; manubrium, body, and xiphoid process Manibrium articulates with clavicle & 2 ribs Body with ribs 2 - 7 Xiphoid attachment site for abdominal muscle
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  • Ribs
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  • Ribs are bowed flat bones Long shaft Tear drop shaped with a costal groove on inner surface Head of rib has 2 facets to articulate with its vertebrae as well as the one above
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  • Ribs Tubercle of rib articulates with transverse process Ligaments secure rib to transverse process Note how the transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae are angled posteriorly
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  • Rib Cage The cone-shaped, flexible rib cage, consists of the thoracic vertebrae, 12 paired ribs, costal cartilages, and the sternum. Encloses and protects the thoracic viscera Directly involved in the mechanics of breathing.
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  • Pectoral Gridle Two scapulae and two clavicles having only an anterior attachment to the axial skeleton sternoclavicular joint at the sternum. Lacking a posterior attachment to the axial skeleton, the pectoral girdle has a wide range of movement. Function: - To provide attachment areas for the numerous muscles that move the shoulder and elbow joints.
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  • Claviculae Lies almost horizontally on each side of the neck, extending from the sternum to the acromion of the scapula
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  • Scapulae
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  • Upper Extremitas Brachium : - Humerus Antebrachium: - Radius - Ulna Manus: - Carpus - Metacarpus - Phalanges
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  • The humerus is the longest and largest bone of the upper limb. It extends from the scapula to the elbow joint and has a body and two ends
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  • The bones of forearm The radius The radius is the lateral bone of the two in the forearm. It has a shaft and two ends. The proximal end A head, neck and tuberosity; head is disc-shaped and its upper surface is a shallow cuparticular fovea for articulation with the capitulum of the humerus. Its articular circumference articulates with radial notch of the ulna. Shaft of radius : interosseous border Distal end Ulnar notch, styloid process, carpal articular surface
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