Ch 7 Skeletal system The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system – Bones (skeleton) – Joints – Cartilages – Ligaments Divided into two divisions

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<ul><li><p>Ch 7 Skeletal system</p></li><li><p>The Skeletal SystemParts of the skeletal systemBones (skeleton)JointsCartilagesLigamentsDivided into two divisionsAxial skeleton- head, spine, trunkAppendicular skeleton</p></li><li><p>The Axial SkeletonFigure 5.6</p></li><li><p>The SkullTwo sets of bonesCraniumFacial bonesBones are joined by suturesOnly the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint</p></li><li><p>Skull cavitiesCranial= brainMiddle &amp; inner ear= protect delicate ear bones and nervesNasal= allow for the warming &amp; cleaning of airOrbital= eyeballs</p></li><li><p>The SkullFigure 5.7</p></li><li><p>Bones of the SkullFigure 5.11</p></li><li><p>The skull can be so thin because it has a dome shape which supports itself.Like an egg is strongOr a domed buildinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nn5s6aSccfwhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DiRw-PzLiXQ</p></li><li><p>Mastoid sinusBehind ear near throat. Can become infected. Mastoiditis.Now we use antibiotics used to have surgery!</p></li><li><p>mandibleThe largest and strongest in the skull </p></li><li><p>Paranasal SinusesHollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavityFunctions of paranasal sinusesLighten the skullGive resonance and amplification to voiceFigure 5.10</p></li><li><p>The Hyoid BoneThe only bone that does not articulate with another boneServes as a moveable base for the tongueFigure 5.12</p></li><li><p>The Vertebral ColumnVertebrae separated by intervertebral discsThe spine has a normal curvatureEach vertebrae is given a name according to its locationFigure 5.14</p></li><li><p>Regional Characteristics of VertebraeFigure 5.17cd</p></li><li><p>Incorrectly curved spine: Kyphosis (hunch back) or Lordosis (hyper curved lumbar) or scoliosis (to the side)</p></li><li><p>Intervertebral disks: cushion between vertebra add flexibility &amp; reduce shock.If a disk is injured it can become herniated. This is when part of the disk bulges out</p></li><li><p>Ch 6-bones</p></li><li><p>Crash course Skeletal systemhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RW46rQKWa-g</p></li><li><p>Bones of the Human BodyThe adult skeleton has 206 bonesTwo basic types of bone tissueCompact boneHomogeneousSpongy boneSmall needle-like pieces of boneMany open spacesFigure 5.2b</p></li><li><p>Classification of Bones on the Basis of ShapeFigure 5.1</p></li><li><p>Classification of BonesLong bonesTypically longer than wideHave a shaft with heads at both endsContain mostly compact boneExamples: Femur, humerus</p></li><li><p>Classification of BonesShort bonesGenerally cube-shapeContain mostly spongy boneExamples: Carpals, tarsals</p></li><li><p>Classification of BonesFlat bonesThin and flattenedUsually curvedThin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy boneExamples: Skull, ribs, sternum</p></li><li><p>Classification of BonesIrregular bonesIrregular shapeDo not fit into other bone classification categoriesExample: Vertebrae and hip</p></li><li><p>Functions of BonesSupport of the bodyProtection of soft organsMovement due to attached skeletal musclesStorage of minerals and fatsBlood cell formation</p></li><li><p>Gross Anatomy of a Long BoneDiaphysisShaftComposed of compact boneEpiphysis Ends of the boneComposed mostly of spongy boneFigure 5.2a</p></li><li><p>Structures of a Long BonePeriosteumOutside covering of the diaphysisFibrous connective tissue membraneArteriesSupply bone cells with nutrientsFigure 5.2c</p></li><li><p>Structures of a Long BonecartilageCovers the external surface of the epiphysesDecreases friction at joint surfacesFigure 5.2a</p></li><li><p>Structures of a Long BoneMedullary cavityCavity of the shaftContains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adultsContains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infantsFigure 5.2a</p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of BoneOsteon (Haversian System)A unit of boneCentral (Haversian) canalOpening in the center of an osteonCarries blood vessels and nervesPerforating (Volkmans) canalCanal perpendicular to the central canalCarries blood vessels and nerves</p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of BoneFigure 5.3</p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of BoneLacunaeCavities containing bone cells (osteocytes)Arranged in concentric ringsLamellaeRings of dense bone tissue around the central canalSites of lacunaeDetail of Figure 5.3</p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of BoneCanaliculi Tiny canalsRadiate from the central canal to lacunaeForm a transport systemDetail of Figure 5.3</p></li><li><p>Types of Bone CellsOsteocytesMature bone cellsOsteoblastsBone-forming cellsOsteoclastsBone-destroying cellsBreak down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calciumBone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts: Build up and break down all of the time!</p></li><li><p>Bone FracturesA break in a boneTypes of bone fracturesClosed (simple) fracture break that does not penetrate the skinOpen (compound) fracture broken bone penetrates through the skinBone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilizationRealignment of the bone</p></li><li><p>Common Types of FracturesTable 5.2</p></li><li><p>Repair of Bone FracturesHematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formedBreak is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callusFibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callusBony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch</p></li><li><p>This area of the bone is now super strong. Because of the density the bone will not re-break here. It is scarred.</p></li><li><p>Stages in the Healing of a Bone FractureFigure 5.5</p></li><li><p>JointsA. Functions of joints1. Hold bones together2. Allow for mobilityB. 3 types1.Fibrous jointsa. Generally immovable (end tibia &amp; fibula)2. Cartilaginous jointsb. Immovable or slightly moveable (vertebral column)</p></li><li><p>3. Synovial jointsc. Allow for movement</p></li><li><p>C. Synovial Joints1. bones are separated by a joint cavity2. Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavitya. Cracking your knuckles is pushing the fluid around in these jointsFigure 5.24fh</p></li><li><p>Features of Synovial Joints3. cartilage covers the ends of bones4.Ligaments reinforce the joint- if you have loose ligaments you are double jointed!D. Associated Structures1.Bursae flattened fibrous sacs filled with synovial fluida. Not actually part of the joint, can become inflamed (bursitis)</p></li><li><p>The Synovial JointFigure 5.28</p></li><li><p>Types of Synovial Joints Based on ShapeFigure 5.29ac</p></li><li><p>Figure 5.29df</p></li><li><p>VI. Types of Body MovementsA. All of the joints allow for the following movements1. Flexion2. Extension3. Rotation4. Abduction5. Adduction6. Circumduction</p></li><li><p>Body MovementsFigure 6.13ac</p></li><li><p>Body MovementsFigure 6.13d</p></li><li><p>1. Special Movementsa. Dorsifelxionb. Plantar flexionc. Inversiond. Eversione. Supinationf. Pronation</p><p>Ch 7*End Day One*End day 2JOINT WORKSHEET &amp; MOVEMENT WORKSHEET</p></li></ul>