Skeletal System Osteology Types of Bones Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton Arthrology Bone Disorders Cartilage Bone Formation Classification of Bones

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  • Skeletal System Osteology Types of Bones Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton Arthrology Bone Disorders Cartilage Bone Formation Classification of Bones Function of Bone Facial Bones Skull Bone Fractures
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  • Osteology The Science of Bones Bone are composed of: Cells, Fibers and a Matrix ( Ca 2+ ) The Matrix of the Bone is referred to as an Hydroxyapatite The Chemical Composition of the bone matrix is (Ca 2+ ) 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 return Bone is living tissue it grows and changes throughout your life. You completely replace your entire skeleton about every ten years.
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  • Figure 07.01 Structure of a Long Bone Return
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  • Bone Formation Two Types - 1.Intramembranous Develops in the connective tissue membranes in the embryo called Mesenchyma embryonic CT 2.Endochrondral Bone Formation Bone forms in cartilage A cartilage model of the skeleton is in place and the cartilage is removed and bone is laid down. NOTE : Bone is NOT calcified cartilage Return
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  • Formation of bone is called Ossification - it starts in the embryo and continues to age 18 in females and 20 in males. Within the cartilage skeleton model of the embryo are ossification centers. This is where the cartilage is being destroyed and the bone is being made. Ossification takes place in the middle of the bone shaft first and then at the ends. The bone develops moving very slowly toward the ends of the bone. Return
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  • Two types of bone are produced : Spongy Bone Contains a lot of cavities this structure reduces weight and increases strength of the bone. This is the region that is effected by osteoporosis the most. Hemopoietic tissue (makes blood) fills the cavities of spongy bone. Compact Bone - Dense strong bone that makes up the outer surface of the bone. Compact bone is composed of millions of subunits called: Haversian Systems or Osteons Return
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  • Figure 07.02 Return
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  • Volksman Canal Articular Cartilage Spongy Bone with Hemopoietic Tissue Epiphyseal Plate or Growth Plate Epiphysis Diaphysis
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  • Three types of Bone Cells 1.Osteoblasts Makes new bone 2.Osteocytes Maintain existing bone if damage occurs. Live inside calcified bone in lacuna (little pond in Latin) 3.Osteoclasts Remove bone, act like white blood cells. They are triggered by parathormone from the thyroid to breakdown bone to increase calcium level in blood. Their action can lead to osteoporosis Loss of bone mass due to lack of calcium. Bones can become weak and brittle. Return
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  • Haversian Canal Systems Haversian System or Osteon Lamella of bone Osteocyte Haversian Canal Canaliculi Return
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  • Function of Bones 1.Support 2.Motion Muscle Attachment 3.Protection Skull protects Brain Ribs & Sternum protects Heart & Lungs 4. Calcium Storage There is a constant exchange between bones and blood. 5. Bone Marrow Process called Hemopoisis is the making of Red and White blood cells. In the infant red marrow is found in most of the bones. In the adult it is only found in 1. Sternum and Ribs 2. Hip Bones (iliac Crest) Take marrow samples here 3. Bodies of Vertebrae 4. Proximal end of Long Bones return
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  • Figure 07.08 Return
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  • Classification of Bones 1.Long Bones Upper Extremities - Humerus Radius & Ulna Lateral Medial Palm - Metacarpals Fingers - Phalanges Lower Extremities - Femur Tibia & Fibula Medial Lateral Foot - Metatarsals and Phalanges return
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  • 2. Short Bones - Wrist - Carpal bones or carpus Ankle - Tarsals bones or Tarsus 3. Irregular Bones - Vertebrae & Skull may be movable or immovable contain many irregular bones 4. Flat Bones - Scapula Shoulder blade Clavicle Collar bone Skull - Frontal & Parietal bones of skull return 5. Sesamoid Bones seed small, nodular found within tendon ex: patella (knee cap)
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  • Identifying Characteristics of Bones 1. Fossa Depression in a bone ex: TMJ (Temporal Mandibular Joint) forms a fossa 2. Sinus Cavity in a bone ex: maxillary sinus cavity above upper jaw 3. Foramen Hole in a bone ex: Foramen Magnum hole for spinal cord in skull 4. Meatus Tubular structure in bone ex: External auditory meatus let sound enter skull 5. Condyles Large smooth curved surfaces that touches another bone. ex: Distal end of femur 6. Trochanter A large projection on a bone for muscle attachment Lec 1 return
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  • Table 07.02
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  • Figure 07.09 Return Appendicular Skeleton Axial Skeleton
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  • Skeleton Axial Skeleton - Skull Ossicles (ear bones) Hyoid Sternum & Ribs Vertebral column Appendicular Skeleton - Upper Extremities Pectoral Girdle - clavicle & scapula (attachment to axial skeleton) Lower Extremities Pelvic Girdle ilium, ischium, pubic bone Return
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  • Skull Two major components 1.Skull Cap - Calvarium or cranium contains 8 bones that enclose the brain. 2.Facial Bones 14 bones that support muscles of the face. Bones of the Calvarium 1. Frontal forehead Anterior fossa of base of skull 2. Parietal 2 means walls- top of skull 3. Temporal 2 sides of skull 4. Occipital posterior part of skull 5. Sphenoid 6. Ethmoid Return 1 2 3 5 4 6
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  • Temporal Bone - Four Parts 1.Squamous Flat/thin part of skull ( Dont get hit here) 2.Mastoid Process breast contain sinus for middle ear. 3.Zygomatic Process bar posterior portion of cheek bone 4.Petrous portion hard houses the inner ear Occipital Bone Thick Bone Contains the Foramen Magnum Big Hole Articulates with first cervical vertebra - Atlas Greek god Atlas Return
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  • Sphenoid Floor of skull called the keystone of the skull keeps the other bones in place. Holds the Pituitary Gland in the Turkish Saddle formed by the four Clinoid processes. Ethmoid Bone sieve contains holes for olfactory nerves to pass through. This is called the Cribriform Plate. Return EthmoidSphenoid
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  • Looking down into skull Petrous portion Pituitary would be here V shape of Occipital is called a Lambdoidal Shape Clinoid Processes Turkish Saddle Return Squamous
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  • The immovable joints between the bones of the skull are called Sutures Anterior Posterior Return
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  • Infant Skull Contains areas of connective tissue called Fontanelles Allows the skull to move during birth and accommodates rapid growth of brain. Return
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  • Facial Bones There are two of each of the facial bones 1. Maxilla Upper Jaw called keystone of face all facial bone touch the maxilla except mandible. 2. Zygomatic Process Anterior roof of mouth formed by maxilla 3. Nasal Bones Forms bridge of nose 4. Lacrimal Bones Inferior medial orbit 5. Zygomatic Bones Middle of cheek 6. Palatine Bones Posterior portion of the roof of the mouth 7. Vomer Bone of lower septum of nasal cavity Return 1 2 3 4 5 7
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  • The Cheek is made up of : Zygomatic Process - Maxilla Zygomatic Bone Zygomatic Process - Temporal The roof of the mouth is called the Hard Palate It is composed of the: Maxilla - Anterior Palatine - Posterior Return
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  • Nose Lateral Nose - Two inferior Conchae in the Inferior lateral nasal cavity Medial Nose - Vomer medial nasal cavity (called the Septum) Mandible Jaw bone only moveable joint of skull Condyloid Process Part of TM Joint Ramus branch Angle Body Coronoid Process Return
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  • Figure 07.12 Return
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  • TeethHumans have a heterodont dentition ( Different Teeth)
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  • Axial Skeleton Hyoid Bone U shaped bone it is:Anterior of neck Inferior to mandible Superior to larynx For support of tongue and attachment of muscle involved in swallowing. Not attached to any other bones. Vertebral Column 33 bones : 7 Cervical 12 ThoracicFlexible/movable 5 Lumbar 5 SacralImmovable 4 Coccygeal Return
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  • Figure 07.17 C1 C7 T1 T12 L1 L5 Ribs attach to all the Thoracic Vertebrae
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  • Figure 07.18 Muscle attachment Rib attachment Laminectomy Cut through this part of the vertebra to get to the spinal cord Spinal cord found here Thoracic is area most common for tumors Largest bodies in Lumbar region due to carrying all of the bodys weight Longest spinous processes in Thoracic region C1 Atlas C2 Axis Odontoid Process tooth connects these two together allows you to rotate your head
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  • Vertebral Column PosteriorLateral Anterior Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Coccyx Scoliosis Abnormal Curves Kyphosis Hunchback Accentuated Thoracic Curve Lordosis Swayback Accentuated Lumbar Curve Scoliosis Lateral curve in Thoracic region more common in females begins during puberty.
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  • Intervertebral Discs Rings of Fibrocartilage between the vertebrae Annulus Fibrosis Stiff cartilage ring Nucleus Pulposus Soft gelatinous center Slipped Disc - When someone has a slipped disc the disc doesnt really move. The Annulus tears and the soft gelatinous center gets squeezed out. Sort of like putting pressure on a jelly donut the jelly squeezes out. Best cure is bed rest and to let the ring heal and the center to regenerate.
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  • Thoracic Cavity This cavity is created by the: Sternum Costal Cartilage Ribs Thoracic Vertebrae Sternum Jugular Notch Throat Manubrium Articulates with Clavicles Body Xiphoid Process Sword like Sternal Angle Most common fracture site
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  • Figure 07.21 Return
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  • Appendicular Skeleton Bones of the upper and lower extremities The bones that attach the extremities to the axial skeleton These bones are the levers that allow locomotion of the body Return
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  • Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral Girdle Clavicle & Scapula Clavicle Collar Bone Articulates with manubrium of sternum. Bone has an S shape. Medial Lateral Sternoclavicular Joint Acromioclavicular joint ConvexConcave
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  • Scapula Lays over the 2 nd to 7 th ribs posteriorly. It is thin with triangular shape. Posterior Anterior Acromion Process Glenoid Cavity Supraspinous Fossa Infraspinous Fossa Spine Coracoid Process Glenoid Fossa Head of Humerus articulates here Coracoid Process Short head of Biceps originates here
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  • Humerus Bone of Arm Surgical Neck Deltoid Tuberosity
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  • Humerus Most fractures occur here Inflammation here is called Tennis Elbow Distal Proximal
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  • Forearm Radius Lateral Ulna Medial Head of Radius and Radial Tuberosity is where the Bicep attaches Olecranon Process is the pointed end of the elbow
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  • Figure 07.25 Distal Proximal LateralMedial Semilunar notch
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  • Carpals, Metacarpals & Phalanges wrist, hand & fingers There are:8 Carpals 5 Metacarpals (the heads of each of these bones 14 Phalanges makes up the knuckle) for each hand.
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  • Lower Extremities Pelivic Girdle Pelvic = Basin 6 Bones 2 ilium, 2 ischium and 2 pubic bones Three bone on each side will form the Acetabulum vinegar cup that will accept the end of the femur. Ilium Anterior - iliac spine or crest Posterior Sacroiliac Joint this carries the weight of the body Ischium - Found Posterior and Inferior Ischial Tuberosities This is what you sit on Obturator Foramen Big holes that make this bone lighter and allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through. Pubic Bone - These two bones meet at the midline Pubic Symphysis Fibrocartilage located here, connection loosen during childbirth. Can determine sex of skeleton by looking at the Pelvic Girdle. Male Narrower, Heavier, Deeper
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  • Figure 07.28
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  • Figure 07.29 Male Female
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  • Lower Extremities Femur Largest and heaviest bones of body. The neck of the femur is a common fracture site in elderly people. Patella Sesamoid bone found in tendon of Quadriceps Tibia Triangular Bone no muscle covering anterior portion just periosteum with a lot of nerves so it hurts when hit. Fibula Thin not weight bearing only for muscle attachment- Lateral Malleolus hammer articulates with Talus bone this is what breaks when you think you have a broken ankle but it is really a leg bone. Tarsals 7 ankle bones Talus and Calcaneous (heel bone) are the largest. Achilles tendon attaches to Calcaneous. Metatarsals 5 bones of the foot 1 st metatarsal carries most of the weight, 5 th metatarsal common to break called Dancers Fracture. Phalanges 14 bones of the toes
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  • Figure 07.30 For muscle attachment, you can see how active person is by looking at this area of a bone. Common fracture site Femur Patella in tendon found here
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  • Figure 07.31 Articulates with femur Articulates with TalusBumps on side of ankle
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  • Figure 07.33 Dancers Fracture Return
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  • Box Figure 07.01a Bone Fractures
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  • Repair of Bone Fracture 1. Severe Bleeding 2. Blood clot forms in the bone 3. Cells from the Periosteum produce Osteoblasts that produce new bone. 4. New bone fragment + Blood clot form a Callus 5. Bone forms between fracture ends called a Bony Collar 6. Osteoclasts remove excess bone
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  • Box Figure 07.01b
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  • Arthrology Science of Joints 1.Fibrous Joints Contain very little connective tissue between the bones. ex: sutures of the skull 2.Cartilaginous Joints Fibrocartilage between bones strong joints ex: Intervertebral Discs, Pubic Symphysis 3.Synovial Joints Connections between bones of appendicular skeleton with egg white ex: Humerous & Glenoid fossa, Femur & Acetabulum Synovial Fluid is there to reduce friction in the joint and to moisten and nourish the cartilage. Cartilage doesnt have blood vessels so the cartilage celled get nourish by synovial fluid. A Bursa is a bag of synovial fluid attached to a joint that is there to reduce friction. Inflammation of the bursa is called Bursitis. Return
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  • Figure 07.35 Produces Synovial Fluid Made of Hyaline Cartilage
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