The Skeletal System Chapter 5. The Skeletal System  Parts of the skeletal system  Bones  Joints  Cartilage  Ligaments  Divided into two divisions.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Skeletal System Chapter 5 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system Bones Joints Cartilage Ligaments Divided into two divisions Axial Skeleton torso and head Appendicular Skeleton - limbs </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Functions of the Bones Support of the body Protection of the soft organs Movement due to attached skeletal muscles Storage of Minerals and fats Blood cell formation </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Bones of the Human Body The skeleton has 206 bones Two basic types of bone tissue Compact bone Homogeneous Very dense and strong Spongy bone Small needle-like pieces of bone Many open spaces Purpose? Figure 5.2b </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Classification of Bones Long Bones Description? Examples? Short Bones Description? Examples? Flat bones Description? Examples? Irregular Bones Irregular shapes Do not fit into any other bone classification category Examples? </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape Figure 5.1 </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone Diaphysis Shaft of the bone Composed primarily of _________ bone Epiphysis Ends of the bone Composed primarily of _________ bone Figure 5.2a </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Structures of a Long Bone Periosteum Outside covering of the diaphysis Skin of the bone Vascular Meaning? Multiple functions Sharpeys fibers Secure periosteum to underlying bone Figure 5.2c </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Structures of a Long Bone Articular cartilage Covers external surfaces of epiphysis Hyaline cartilage Function? Figure 5.2a </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Structures of a Long Bone Medullary cavity Cavity of the shaft Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants Figure 5.2a </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Structures of Long Bone Process Projection from the bone Purposes Site of attachments for muscles Create joints Pathway for nerves, blood vessels </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Osteon (Haversian System) Bone is built around a canal Tube-like openings in the bone DQ - What would these canals be used for? Two types of Canals Central (Haversian) canal Run longitudinally in the bode Perforating (Volkmans) canal Perpendicular to the Haversian Canal </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Figure 5.3 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Lacunae Tiny cavities containing osteocytes (bone cells) Lamellae Rings around the central canal Sites of lacunae Figure 5.3 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Canaliculi Tiny canals Radiate from the central canal to lacunae Not the same as Volkmanns canal Purpose = diffusion Figure 5.3 </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Bone Cells 3 Types of Bone cells Osteocytes - Mature bone cell Osteoblast Bone forming cell Osteoclast Bone Destroying cell Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Skeletal Functions Support and Protection: Bones create the shape of our body Examples? Bones provide a hard protective barrier around vital organs Examples? Movement: Muscles attach to the bones across joints Work like levers </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Skeletal Functions Blood cell production: Hematopoiesis the process of forming blood cells Not always in the bone marrow As embryo develops, production is in the liver and spleen Then switches to the marrow 2 types of Marrow Red Yellow </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Hematopoiesis Red marrow produces erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes Which is RBC? WBC? Platelets? Red color is due to hemoglobin Infants have mostly red marrow Why would this be? As aging occurs, most red marrow is replaced with yellow marrow Yellow stores fat </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Storage of Minerals Minerals account for about 70% of bone matrix Calcium #1 When blood calcium levels are low hormones stimulate osteoclasts to break down bone tissue Why would they do this? High blood calcuim levels stimulate osteoblasts to form bone </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Changes in the Human Skeleton In a fetus, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage What happens to the cartilage as we develop? Replaced by bone Cartilage remains in isolated areas Where? </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Bone Growth and Development (Endochondral) Replacement of cartilage begins in the primary ossification center Occurs in the diaphysis What type of cell is active? Continues in secondary ossification sites in epiphysis Epiphyseal plate is created between primary and secondary ossification sites. You might know this by a different name </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Bone Growth and Development (Endochondral) During this process the Medullary Cavity must be formed. How is this done? Growth Hormone (GH) and sex hormones control bone growth DQ - When does bone growth stop? When the primary and secondary ossification sites grow together, closing the epiphyseal plate. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Long Bone Formation and Growth Figure 5.4a </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Long Bone Formation and Growth Figure 5.4b </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Bone Homeostasis To stay healthy, bone is continually resorbed and deposited DQ - Why would this be? So old bone is broken down and new bone can be formed. Controlled by two factors Calcium levels in blood Stress on bones Example: Running If this process becomes unbalanced bones lose their mass and become weaker </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Classification of Fractures Simple (aka closed) Break does not penetrate the skin Compound (aka open) The Broken bone penetrates through the skin </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Types of fractures Greenstick incomplete, only one side of bone Transverse Complete break to right angle to lengthwise of long bone. Usually traumatic Oblique - Rare. Break at an angle Comminuted More than two fragments broken off. traumatic </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Types of fractures </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Impacted Occurs after a fall, vertebral column compressed, and cracks Pathologic - Disorder that weakens the bone, leading to a fracture Stress - A bone becomes stressed from over use. Can cause slight breaks </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Repair Bone fractures Break causes blood vessels to rupture What does this cause? Osteoclasts will remove bone fragments New vessels and Fibrocartilage form around break Cartilage will be replaced by a bony callus Cell types - osteoblasts </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Repair of fracture (Bone remodeling) There is typically more bone produced at site of healing Why would this be? How does the bone get back to normal? Osteoclasts will reshape to like original bone </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Skeletal Differences Adult vs. Infant skull Infant - face is small in comparison to cranial bones How much of an adults length is made of the head? Infants? Adults = about 1/8 Infants = about 1/4 Fontanels - soft spots What is the purpose of fontanels? Provides room for the brain to grow </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Skeletal Disorders Use your book to come up with a one sentences summary of each of the following disorders. Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Gouty arthritis (Gout) Osteoporosis Scoliosis Kyphosis Lordosis Osteomyelitis bacterial infection of the bone, causing pain and discomfort. Paget disease Bone remodeling is not balanced leading to abnormal and enlarged but brittle bones. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Skeletal Disorders Due to poor posture, Helga has felt like she is constantly leaning forward. An X-ray reveals excessive flexion in the thoracic curvature. Kyphosis Jimbo was a four sport athlete in high school and has continued with high impact excercises. He has complained of stiffness in his knees. He has also started to develop bone spurs, which hinder movement. Osteoarthritis </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Skeletal Disorders Phoebes phalanges have fused together, so she is unable to flex his fingers. Her family has a history of this disorder and it is discovered that she has a high quantity of uric acid in her blood. Gouty Arthritis Whitneys muscles in her lumbar region are excessively tight. This has caused the lumbar vertebrae to curve laterally towards the tightened muscles. Scoliosis </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Skeletal disorders Gertrude has experienced a dull pain in her lower back. An x-ray revealed a fracture of her L2, yet Gertrude does not recall any impact that may have caused the break. Osteoporosis Will-i-am experienced a compound fracture a week ago and the bones were reduced while on a hunting trip. He has since developed a fever and severe pain in the area of injury. It is suspected that he has a bacterial infection. Osteomyelitis </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Skeletal Disorders Mac has experienced pain in his bones. Through an x-ray it has been determined that his femur is misshapen. He has also been told by his doctor that he has a high alkaline phosphatase level in his blood. Pagets Disease Marges joints have become swollen, reddened and tender. It has been very painful to move. This seems to to go away, but it keeps coming back. Rheumatoid Arthritis </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Joints Every bone in the body articulates with another bone Except the hyoid Not all joints are movable. Where would immovable joints be found? 3 Types of Joints Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Types of Joints Fibrous Immovable Examples? Cartilaginous Both ends connected by cartilage Immovable to limited movement Examples? Synovial surrounded by joint cavity Contain hyaline cartilage, ligaments, and synovial fluid Examples? </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Knee injuries Torn ACL, MCL, PCL, LCL </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Types of synovial joints Plane - no rotation bones glide past one another Example Hinge - move on one axis like a door hinge Example Pivot - rotation around an axis Example Condyloid - move on two axes Example Saddle move on two axes Example Ball and socket - move in all axes Example </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Figure 5.29df </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Motions Flexion-Angle decreases Extension - Rotation Move around an axis Abduction - Adduction - Circumduction - Dorsiflexion raising foot to the shin Plantar flexion - Elevation raise a body part Depression lower a body part Supination - Pronation - </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> </ul>

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