Anatomy of Skeletal System. SKELETAL SYSTEM COMPOSED OF: COMPOSED OF: -Bones -Bones -Cartilage -Cartilage -Joints -Joints -Ligaments -Ligaments

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Anatomy of Skeletal System </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> SKELETAL SYSTEM COMPOSED OF: COMPOSED OF: -Bones -Bones -Cartilage -Cartilage -Joints -Joints -Ligaments -Ligaments </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Functions of Skeletal System SUPPORT: Hard framework that supports and anchors the soft organs of the body. SUPPORT: Hard framework that supports and anchors the soft organs of the body. PROTECTION: Surrounds organs such as the brain and spinal cord. PROTECTION: Surrounds organs such as the brain and spinal cord. MOVEMENT: Allows for muscle attachment therefore the bones are used as levers. MOVEMENT: Allows for muscle attachment therefore the bones are used as levers. STORAGE: Minerals and lipids are stored within bone material. STORAGE: Minerals and lipids are stored within bone material. BLOOD CELL FORMATION: The bone marrow is responsible for blood cell production. BLOOD CELL FORMATION: The bone marrow is responsible for blood cell production. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Bone Markings Slide 5.9 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bone Surface is not smooth, but shows: Bone markings which reveal where: -muscles, tendons, and ligaments attatched -nerves and blood vessels pass *bone marking may be: 1-projections or processes or 2-depressions or cavities </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Structure Compact bone Compact bone Outer layer of bone, very hard and dense. Outer layer of bone, very hard and dense. Organized in structural units called Haversian systems. Organized in structural units called Haversian systems. Matrix is composed of Ca salts (Ca carbonate and Ca phosphate) Matrix is composed of Ca salts (Ca carbonate and Ca phosphate) Osteocytes living bone cells that live in matrix. Osteocytes living bone cells that live in matrix. Porous (Spongy) bone Porous (Spongy) bone Located in the ends of long bones. Located in the ends of long bones. Many spaces that are filled with red bone marrow which produces bone cells. Many spaces that are filled with red bone marrow which produces bone cells. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Structure Spongy bone (contd) Spongy bone (contd) Trabeculae needle-like threads of spongy bone that surround the spaces. Add strength to this portion of the bone. Trabeculae needle-like threads of spongy bone that surround the spaces. Add strength to this portion of the bone. Cartilage Cartilage Matrix is a firm gel with chondrocytes suspended in the matrix. Matrix is a firm gel with chondrocytes suspended in the matrix. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Classification of Bones Slide 5.4a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Long bones Typically longer than wide Have a shaft with heads at both ends Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerus </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Classification of Bones Slide 5.4b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Short bones Generally cube-shape Contain mostly spongy bone Examples: Carpals, tarsals </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape Slide 5.4c Figure 5.1 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Classification of Bones Slide 5.5a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Flat bones Thin and flattened Usually curved Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Classification of Bones Slide 5.5b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Irregular bones Irregular shape Do not fit into other bone classification categories Example: Vertebrae and hip </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone Slide 5.6 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Diaphysis Shaft Composed of compact bone Epiphysis Ends of the bone Composed mostly of spongy bone Figure 5.2a </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Structures of a Long Bone Slide 5.7 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Periosteum Outside covering of the diaphysis Fibrous connective tissue membrane Sharpeys fibers Secure periosteum to underlying bone Arteries Supply bone cells with nutrients Figure 5.2c </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Structures of a Long Bone Slide 5.8a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Articular cartilage Covers the external surface of the epiphyses Made of hyaline cartilage Decreases friction at joint surfaces Figure 5.2a </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Structures of a Long Bone Slide 5.8b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Medullary cavity Cavity of the shaft Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants Figure 5.2a </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Slide 5.10a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Osteon (Haversian System) A unit of bone Central (Haversian) canal Opening in the center of an osteon Carries blood vessels and nerves Perforating (Volkmans) canal Canal perpendicular to the central canal Carries blood vessels and nerves </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Slide 5.10b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.3 </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Slide 5.11a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lacunae Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) Arranged in concentric rings Lamellae Rings around the central canal Sites of lacunae Figure 5.3 </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Slide 5.11b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Canaliculi Tiny canals Radiate from the central canal to lacunae Form a transport system Figure 5.3 </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Changes in the Human Skeleton Slide 5.12 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone Cartilage remains in isolated areas Bridge of the nose Parts of ribs Joints </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Bone Growth Slide 5.13a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood New cartilage is continuously formed Older cartilage becomes ossified Cartilage is broken down Bone replaces cartilage </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Bone Growth Bone Growth Slide 5.13b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops Bones change shape by gravity &amp;muscle pull Bones grow in width through periostium </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Long Bone Formation and Growth Slide 5.14a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.4a </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Long Bone Formation and Growth Slide 5.14b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.4b </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Types of Bone Cells Slide 5.15 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Osteocytes Mature bone cells Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells Osteoclasts Bone-destroying cells Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Fractures Closed fracture (simple): skin is intact Closed fracture (simple): skin is intact Open fracture (compound): skin is open Open fracture (compound): skin is open Fracture reduction : Fracture reduction : 1-closed reduction,no surgery is needed 1-closed reduction,no surgery is needed 2-open reduction,surgery is needed 2-open reduction,surgery is needed </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Repair of fracture Healing time for simple fracture is 6-8 weeks (longer in elderly people) Healing time for simple fracture is 6-8 weeks (longer in elderly people) It occurs in FOUR major events It occurs in FOUR major events 1-hematoma formation 1-hematoma formation 2-fibrocartilage callus formation 2-fibrocartilage callus formation 3-bony callus formation 3-bony callus formation 4-bone remodelling 4-bone remodelling </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Skeletal system includes Axial division Axial division Skull and associated bones Skull and associated bones Auditory ossicles Auditory ossicles Hyoid bones Hyoid bones Vertebral column Vertebral column Thoracic cage(Ribs+ sternum) Thoracic cage(Ribs+ sternum) Appendicular division - Pectoral girdle -Pelvic girdle </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> The Axial Skeleton Axial division Axial division Skull and associated Skull and associated bones: bones: Auditory ossicles Auditory ossicles Hyoid bones Hyoid bones Vertebral column Vertebral column Thoracic cage Thoracic cage Ribs + sternum Ribs + sternum </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> The Skull and Associated Bones </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Sutures Sutures Immovable joints that join skull bones together Sutures Immovable joints that join skull bones together Form boundaries between skull bones Form boundaries between skull bones Four sutures: Four sutures: Coronal between parietal and frontal Coronal between parietal and frontal Sagittal between parietal bones Sagittal between parietal bones Lambdoid between the parietal and occipital Lambdoid between the parietal and occipital Squamous between the parietal and temporal Squamous between the parietal and temporal Fontanels usually ossify by 2 years of age Fontanels usually ossify by 2 years of age </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Frontal (Coronal) Sagittal Squamous Lambdoid Sutures </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> skull = 22 bones cranium = 8 bones: frontal, occipital, 2 temporals, 2 parietals, sphenoid and ethmoid facial bones = 14 bones: nasals, maxillae, zygomatics, mandible, lacrimals, palatines, inferior nasal conchae, vomer. skull forms a larger cranial cavity -also forms the nasal cavity, the orbits, paranasal sinuses mandible and auditory ossicles are the only movable skull bones cranial bones also: attach to membranes called meninges -stabilize positions of the brain, blood vessels -outer surface provides large areas for muscle attachment that move the head or provide facial expressions The Adult Skull </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Bones of the Cranium </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Frontal View </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Frontal Frontal View </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Parietal Frontal View </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Temporal Frontal View </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Nasal Frontal View </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Vomer Frontal View </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Zygoma Frontal View </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Maxilla Frontal View </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Mandible Frontal View </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Frontal Parietal Temporal Zygoma Nasal Vomer Maxilla Mandible Frontal View </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Lateral View </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Frontal Lateral View </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Parietal Lateral View </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Temporal Lateral View </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Nasal Lateral View </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Zygoma Lateral View </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Maxilla Lateral View </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Mandible Lateral View </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Occipital Lateral View </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Mastoid Process Lateral View </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> External Auditory Meatus Lateral View </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Frontal Nasal Zygoma Maxilla Mandible Parietal Sphenoid Temporal Occipital External Auditory Meatus Mastoid Process Lateral View </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Figure 6.4 Sectional Anatomy of the Skull, Part I </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Frontal bone Frontal bone Forms the forehead Forms the forehead Roof of the orbit Roof of the orbit articulates with parietal, sphenoid, lacrimal, nasal, ethmoid, zygomatic and maxilla articulates with parietal, sphenoid, lacrimal, nasal, ethmoid, zygomatic and maxilla superior and lateral to glabellar region frontal sinuses superior and lateral to glabellar region frontal sinuses inferior portion supraorbital ridges with supraorbital notch (supraorbital nerve and artery) inferior portion supraorbital ridges with supraorbital notch (supraorbital nerve and artery) </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> Parietal bones -Part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the cranium -articulate with each other sagittal suture -articulate with occipital, frontal, temporal and sphenoid bones </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> Temporal bone -Forms wall of jugular foramen -Petrous part: posterior portion -Tympanic part: associated with ear canal -Squamous part: anterior portion, fan-shaped -zygomatic process -forms cranial portion of the TMJ joint -inferior to zygo. process mandibular fossa (mandibular condyle) </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> Temporal bone petrous portion houses the inner ear -inferior aspect mastoid process (air spaces that communicate with the middle ear) -also for attachment of sternocleidomastoid muscle -inferior to mastoid process mastoid foramen -anterior to mastoid process external acoustic meatus -inferior and medial to the MP styloid process (muscle attachment) -stylomastoid foramen (7 th cranial) </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> Occipital bone Occipital bone Part of the base of the skull Part of the base of the skull articulates with parietal, temporal and sphenoid articulates with parietal, temporal and sphenoid Surrounds the foramen magnum Surrounds the foramen magnum lateral to the FM hypoglossal canal (12 th cranial) lateral to the FM hypoglossal canal (12 th cranial) projections = occipital condyles projections = occipital condyles Forms part of the jugular foramen Forms part of the jugular foramen </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> Slide 69 </li> <li> Sphenoid bone Sphenoid bone Contributes to floor of cranium Contributes to floor of cranium articulates with the frontal, ethmoid, temporal articulates with the frontal, ethmoid, temporal zygomatic, parietal maxillary, palatine, vomer &amp; occipital bones zygomatic, parietal maxillary, palatine, vomer &amp; occipital bones Bridges cranial and facial bones Bridges cranial and facial bones Optic canal allows passage of optic nerve Optic canal allows passage of optic nerve </li> <li> Slide 70 </li> <li> Ethmoid bone Irregularly shaped bone Irregularly shaped bone Forms part of orbital wall Forms part of orbital wall Forms roof of nasal cavity Forms roof of nasal cavity articulates with: frontal, sphenoid, lacrimal and maxillary bones articulates with: frontal, sphenoid, lacrimal and maxillary bones connects with the vomer connects with the vomer two lateral masses...</li></ul>