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    99-34876 (E) 271199

    United Nations A/54/549

    General Assembly Distr.: General15 November 1999

    Original: English

    Fifty-fourth session

    Agenda item 42The situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to General

    Assembly resolution 53/35

    The fall of Srebrenica

    ContentsParagraphs Page

    I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6

    II. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1040 8

    A. Break-up of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and theestablishment of the United Nations Protection Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014 8

    B. Independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the outbreak of war . . . . . 1519 9

    C. Humanitarian activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2023 9

    D. Proposals for a peacekeeping mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina . . . . . . 2428 10

    E. The peace process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2932 11

    F. Srebrenica prior to the safe area resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3340 13

    III. Adoption of Security Council resolutions 819 (1993), 824 (1993) and 836(1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    41102 16

    A. Minimal consensus within the Security Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4144 16

    B. The concept of safe areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4551 16C. Security Council resolution 819 (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5258 18

    D. Srebrenica demilitarization agreement of 18 April 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5962 19

    E. Security Council mission to Srebrenica and further demilitarizationagreement of 8 May 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6365 19

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    F. Security Council resolution 824 (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6669 20

    G. End of the Vance-Owen Peace Plan; moves to strengthen the safe arearegime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7077 21

    H. Security Council resolution 836 (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7879 22

    I. Positions of Security Council members on resolution 836 (1993) . . . . . . 8092 23

    J. Reluctance to use force to deter attacks on safe areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9395 25

    K. Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to resolution 836 (1993)(S/25939) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9698 26

    L. Efforts to lift the arms embargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99102 26

    IV. Evolution of the safe area policy: June 1993-December 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103174 29

    A. Initial implementation of the safe area policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103105 29

    B. Mount Igman crisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106113 29

    C. Proposals to exchange Srebrenica and epa for Serb-held territory around

    Sarajevo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114116 30

    D. Markale massacre and disagreements on the use of air power . . . . . . . . . 117123 31

    E. United Nations assessment of the safe area policy as of March 1994 . . . 124130 32

    F. Attack on Gora de: March-April 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131145 34

    G. Report of the Secretary-General of 9 May 1994 (S/1994/555) . . . . . . . . . 146152 36

    H. Contact Group peace plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153156 37

    I. Serb assault on the safe area of Biha A : October-December 1994 . . . . . . . 157163 38

    J. Repor t of the Secretary-General of 1 December 1994 (S/1994/1389) . . . 164174 39

    V. Events of January-June 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175225 44

    A. Cessation of hostilities agreement and its collapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175184 44

    B. Air strikes around Sarajevo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185189 45

    C. United Nations Protection Force hostage crisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190200 46

    D. Report of the Secretary-General of 30 May 1995 (S/1995/444) . . . . . . . . 201209 48

    E. Bosniac attempt to break the siege of Sarajevo and its consequences forthe United Nations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210212 49

    F. Rapid reaction force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213220 49

    G. Fighting around Srebrenica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221225 51

    VI. Overview of deployment in Srebrenica: February-July 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226238 53VII. Fall of Srebrenica: 6-11 July 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239317 57

    A. 6 July: attack on observation post Foxtrot; request for close air suppor t . 239245 57

    B. 7 July: pause in Serb attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246249 58

    C. 8 July: request for close air support discouraged; Bosnian Serb Armyoverruns observation post Foxtrot; ARBiH kill Dutchbat soldier . . . . . . . 250261 59

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    D. 9 July: events leading to blocking position and warning to Serbs . . . . . . 262276 61

    E. 10 July: Bosnian Serb Army violates warning; use of close air supportdeferred . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277296 63

    F. 11 July: initial confusion over air support; Srebrenica falls . . . . . . . . . . 297317 67

    VIII. Aftermath of the fall of Srebrenica: 12-20 July 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318393 72

    A. 12 July: meetings with Mladi A ; deportation commences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318328 72

    B. 12 July: Security Council resolution 1004 (1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329339 75

    C. Night of 12 July: sporadic killing begins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340345 76

    D. 13 July: killing of hundreds of unarmed men and boys begins . . . . . . . . 346360 77

    E. 14 July: mass executions commence; European Union negotiator meetsMiloeviA and Mladi A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361374 80

    F. 15 July: massacres continue; agreement reached between Mladi A and theUnited Nations Protection Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375382 82

    G. 16-18 July: reports of atrocities begin to surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383390 83

    H. 19 July: Mladi A and United Nations Protection Force Commander meetagain and conclude agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391393 85

    IX. Fall of epa and the new safe area policy: July-October 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394464 87

    A. Preparations for the attack on epa: 11-14 July 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394396 87

    B. Attack, resistance and negotiations in epa: 14-20 July 1995 . . . . . . . . 397402 87

    C. First formal reports of atrocities from Srebrenica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403404 88

    D. London meeting and changes in the approach to the use of air strikes . . 405410 89

    E. Operational arrangements resulting from the London meeting . . . . . . . . . 411414 90

    F. Fall of epa and the flight to Serbia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415431 90

    G. Operation Storm and the United States-led peace initiative . . . . . . . . . . . 432437 93

    H. Attack on Markale marketplace in Sarajevo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438441 94

    I. Operation Deliberate Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442445 95

    J. Serb assessment of Operation Deliberate Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446447 95

    K. Pause; a new peace map; opening a road into Sarajevo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448450 96

    L. Resumption of air and ground attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451455 97

    M. United States-led peace initiative; concerns about the mandate . . . . . . . . 456459 98

    N. Croatian offensive and the end of hostilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460464 99X. Peacekeeping and the Peace Agreement: October-December 1995 . . . . . . . . . . 465466 100

    XI. The fall of Srebrenica: an assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467506 102

    A. Role

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