The Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer. The Medieval Period A.D. 1066-1485

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> The Medieval Period A.D. 1066-1485 </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> The Norman Conquest After conquering the Anglo-Saxons in 1066, William of Normandy began to fuse the Anglo-Saxon culture with his own. The Normans (or north men) were originally Viking raiders from Northern Europe, who settled in the northern- coastal region of France known as Normandy. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> The Norman Conquest William introduced many French customs and traditions to England. This was the beginning of the Medieval (or middle) period in England. The biggest change that William introduced was feudalism the concept that the king owned all the land in the kingdom. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> The Medieval Period As a part of the new feudalism, William kept one quarter of the land for himself. The remainder of the land in England he divided amongst the church and nobles. Many of these nobles were Norman barons, who either paid William for the land, or supplied him with warriors called knights. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> The Medieval Period With these barons and knights came a new social ladder, as follows: The King The Barons The Knights Peasants and Serfs (those bound to land they could not own). Many of these were Anglo-Saxons. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> The Medieval Period William was succeeded by Henry I, his son. His grandson, Henry II, would follow as the next king of England. Henry II reformed England, creating a judicial system and English common law based on old practices. Henry IIs wife, Eleanor, introduced the Code of Chivalry, based on French ideals. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The Code of Chivalry Chivalry was a code meant to govern the conduct and behavior of knights. Chivalry encouraged knights to honor and protect ladies and to go on holy quests, such as the Crusades. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Have you heard of Robin Hood? Henry II was succeeded by his son Richard I otherwise known as Richard the Lion- Hearted. While Richard I fought in the Crusades, his brother, John plotted against him. These are the same figures that are popular in the Robin Hood lengends. After Richards death, the royal treasury was bankrupt. John was forced to sign the Magna Carta, limiting royal authority by giving more power to the barons. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> The Medieval Period King John was succeeded by Henry III. Henry III established Parliament as a governing body of barons. Henrys son, Edward I, modified Parliament in 1295, allowing commoners to be included, thus making Parliament a truly representative body of the people of England. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> The Medieval Period As the Crusades continued, England began to become a center of trade and commerce. Feudalism began to decline as a result of the economical changes. Education became a focus in England as cities developed; universities such as Oxford flourished. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> The Fall of the Medieval Period As Edward III was king of England, the Hundred Years War began. England also endured the plague known as the Black Death, which killed one third of the nations population. In 1453, the Hundred Years War finally ended England had lost nearly all of its French possessions. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> The Fall of the Medieval Period Around the end of the war, a struggle for power began between the House of York (represented by a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (represented by a red rose). The War of Roses ended in 1485, when Lancasters Henry Tudor killed the Yorkist king, Richard II. Henry took the throne as Henry VII, ending the Middle Ages. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Geoffrey Chaucer </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Chaucers Life Chaucer was born sometime between 1340 and 1343 Born probably in London, England His family was not noble, but were well off Parents worked in the wine and leather trade </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Chaucers Life He was placed as an attendant for the wife of Prince Lionel, son of King Edward III (right) Here he learned the customs of upper-class life Chaucer met Lionels brother, John of Gaunt, a lifelong patron (left) </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Chaucer in the Military He fought in the Hundred Years War against the French He was captured during the siege of Rheims The king himself contributed to Chaucers ransom </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Chaucers Life Chaucer then served as a royal messenger His royal contacts helped establish his future life He married Philippa, a lady in waiting to the queen He was appointed comptroller of customs for London in 1374 </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Chaucers Life Chaucer continued his political career under several kings Richard II (1377) (left) Henry IV (1399) son of John of Gaunt (right) </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Chaucers Death Chaucer dies in 1400 Buried in Westminster Abbey This was a rare honor for a commoner </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Chaucers Tomb In 1566, an admirer built an elaborate marble tomb for Chaucers remains This began the Poets Corner of Westminster Abbey Many famous English writers would later be buried there </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> The Poets Corner "The communication of the dead is tongued with fire beyond the language of the living Epitaph on the memorial to T.S.Eliot. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> The Poets Corner </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Other Writers in the Poets Corner Several authors have been buried in the Poets Corner of Westminster Abbey since Geoffrey Chaucer, including: Edmund Spencer, John Dryden, Tennyson, Robert Browning and John Masefield. Many writers, including William Camden, Dr. Samuel Johnson, Charles Dickens, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Rudyard Kipling and Thomas Hardy </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Poets Corner Memorials The following writers are not buried in Westminster Abbey, but have memorials placed in the Poets Corner: William Shakespeare, John Milton, William Wordsworth, Thomas Gray, John Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Robert Burns, William Blake, T.S. Eliot, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Samuel Butler, Jane Austen, Oliver Goldsmith, Sir Walter Scott, John Ruskin, Charlotte, Emily and Anne Bronte, Henry James and Sir John Betjeman </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Chaucers Inspirations Chaucer had heavy influence from French and Italian Literature Italian Influences Dante Alighieri Petrarch Boccaccio </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Chaucers Writing The Romance of the Rose Chaucers first major writing effort A famous medieval French romance The Book of the Duchess Chaucers first important original work Tribute to Blanche, John of Gaunts wife She died of the plague in 1369 The House of Fame A humorous narrative about the instability of renown </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> The Canterbury Tales A collection of verse and prose tales The stories are joined by pretending to be told by travelers journeying from London to Canterbury. Scholars speculate he began planning The Canterbury Tales in 1387. The Canterbury Tales were unfinished at Chaucers death He had already penned nearly 20,000 lines Many more tales were planned Chaucer portrayed himself in the Canterbury tales A short, plump, slightly foolish pilgrim Commanded no great respect </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> The Canterbury Tales </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> The Tales The Canterbury Tales are the stories told by a group of pilgrims traveling from the Tabard Inn in London to visit Saint Thomas Beckets Shrine at Canterbury Cathedral. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Poetry versus Prose Most of The Canterbury Tales are composed in verse, or poetry. However, two of the tales are told in prose, or short story-style writing. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Chaucers Poetry The Canterbury Tales are written in Iambic Pentameter. Iambs are poetic feet that are an unstressed syllable, followed by a stressed syllable. An example would be: Come live/with me/my Love Pentameter is a line of poetry with five metrical feet. </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> The Tales The Canterbury Tales are told in a Frame Narrative. This means that the main story is written to organize several smaller stories within the work. Essentially, the main story frames the tales of the travelers within. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> The Tales The Tales are made up of the stories of several pilgrims traveling to Canterbury. These pilgrims make up both upper and lower class, and include members from all walks of life. Some examples: A monk, a pardoner, a sailor, a miller, a carpenter, and a knight, as well as the Wife of Bath </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> The Tales The travelers, to help pass the time of their journey, agree to tell four stories each. Two on the way to Canterbury, and two on the return voyage. At the end of they journey, the best story, judged by the host, will earn its teller a free meal, courtesy the rest of the pilgrims. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> The Tales The Knight begins the story-telling, and the stories continue on the trip to Canterbury. However, in the end, no winner is chosen, and the stories are never finished. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> The Tales The tales themselves vary in nature. Some of the pilgrims tell tales that represent their social position. Others tell stories to make fun of others in the group. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> The Tales At the end of The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer wrote a retraction. This retraction intended to apologize for anything in the stories which may have been inappropriate or offensive. </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Locations in The Canterbury Tales </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> The Tabard Inn </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Canterbury Cathedral </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Why Canterbury Cathedral? Why, to honor Saint Thomas Becket, of course! </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> St. Thomas Becket Thomas Becket was born ~1118 (Over 200 Years prior to The Canterbury Tales) Appointed Archdeacon of Canterbury by Theobald, the current Archbishop Appointed Lord Chancellor by King Henry II </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> St. Thomas Becket Becket, a friend and fellow noble, even housed Henrys son (aptly named Henry) for a time. The young Henry said that Becket showed him more love in a day than his father did in a lifetime This would eventually cause the young Henry to turn against his father. </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> St. Thomas Becket In 1162, several months after the death of Theobald, Thomas Becket is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. Henry II hoped to use Becket to sway his influence on the Church and diminish its power in England. Becket drops his Chancellorship in favor of his new position and authority. </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> St. Thomas Becket Becket consolidates the land revenues of Canterbury under his control (which normally were paid to the king as land tax). This begins a conflict between Church and State, where Henry II struggles with Becket for power in England. Henry II wishes to be the absolute ruler of both Church and State. </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> The Constitutions of Clarendon The major feud between Henry II and Becket took place due to the Constitutions of Clarendon. These constitutions would give the clergy less power and weaken the Churchs connection with Rome. Becket refused to sign the constitutions. </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Becket is Summoned to Trial As a result of Beckets refusal to sign the Constitutions of Clarendon, Henry II summons him to appear before a court at Northampton Castle. Becket is charged with contempt of royal authority and malfeasance. (Performing an act that is unjustified, harmful, or contrary to law by a public official) </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Beckets Trial Becket is convicted of these charges. He flees the court and escaped to continental Europe for safety. Eventually, due to threats against Beckets friends and supporters, he returns. Becket desired to excommunicate Henry II, but Pope Alexander III wanted a more diplomatic solution. </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Beckets Reactions Despite the opinions of the Pope and papal legates, Becket eventually excommunicates 20 of Henrys companions. Finally, a threat by the Pope to excommunicate the entire population of England led to a compromise by Henry, and he allowed Becket to resume his position. </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Beckets Reactions King Henry the Young is crowned king, and the coronation is handled by three bishops. The coronation was supposed to be handled by Canterbury. Becket excommunicates the three bishops. Word of this reaches the king. In his anger, he utters, Will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest?" </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Beckets Murder Several knights, four to be exact, take this as a royal order. They seek out Becket in Canterbury, and after attempts to draw him out of the Cathedral, rush in with swords and murder him. </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> After Beckets Murder A shrine and memorial were established for Becket at Canterbury. However, the shrine was destroyed as part of Henry VIIIs campaign to punish those who challenge a kings authority in England. By 1173, Becket was canonized by Pope Alexander III only 3 years after his death. </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> The Shrine of Saint Thomas King Henry VIII ordered Beckets shrine to be destroyed around 300 years after it was built. There is, however, a memorial to Saint Thomas a Becket, and the site remains where his shrine once stood. </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> About Saint Thomas Shrine The King is also enthusiastic about Saint Thomas Becket - enthusiastic about giving him his come uppance for treasonably challenging the God given authority of an English King. So Becket's bones are disinterred, tried in a court of law, found guilty, decanonised and burned. The King also orders the destruction of all Becket memorabilia and "portraits" in England. Source: http://www.paradoxplace.com/Photo%20Pages/UK/Britain_South_and_W est/Canterbury_Cathedral/Canterbury.htm </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> The Shrine of Saint Thomas Since the shrine was destroyed, we dont know exactly what it looked like. But, we do think it may have looking similar to this recreation of the Shrine of Saint Alban. </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> The Shrine of Saint Thomas The remains of the Shrine of Saint Thomas: </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> The Memorial to Saint Thomas A memorial now stands where Saint Thomas was cut down and murdered in Canterbury Cathedral. </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Middle English versus Modern English A Comparison </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Middle English On the following slides are examples from the Canterbury Tales in Middle English and then in Modern English. </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> Middle English Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote The droghte of March hath perced to the roote And bathed every veyne in swich licour, Of which vertu engendred is the flour; W...</li></ul>

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