medieval period 1066-1485. 1066 a.d. – norman conquest of england; battle of hastings; william the...

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  • Slide 1
  • Medieval Period 1066-1485
  • Slide 2
  • 1066 A.D. Norman conquest of England; Battle of Hastings; William the Conqueror defeats the last Anglo-Saxon king Historical Events that Started and Ended this Period 1485 A.D. Invention of printing press by Johannes Gutenberg; in 1485 William Caxton sets up the first one in England
  • Slide 3
  • Introduction to Medieval Period Dark Ages: Barbarian Germanic tribes move across Europe. Generally rough, crude, illiterate, new Christians.
  • Slide 4
  • Englands Invaders: Prior to 1100 AD: England is invaded often by tribes from many different parts of Europe.
  • Slide 5
  • Englands Invaders: Prior to 1100 AD: England is invaded often by tribes from many different parts of Europe. Normans 1. Descendants of a Germanic tribe 2. Loyal to the French King 3. Very powerful, French King made their ruler a Duke
  • Slide 6
  • Englands Invaders: 1066AD 1.King Edward the Confessor, the Anglo-Saxon king, dies without an heir 2.The Norman Duke, William, a relative of Edward, claims the throne
  • Slide 7
  • Englands Invaders: 1066AD 1.King Edward the Confessor, the Anglo-Saxon king, dies without an heir 2.The Norman Duke, William, a relative of Edward, claims the throne 3.William is triumphant at The Battle of Hastings. 4.He is crowned the king of England on Christmas Day, 1066. 5. He will go down in history as William the Conqueror
  • Slide 8
  • Englands Invaders: William The Conqueror (1066-1087) 1.His most significant introduction into English society was the concept of FEUDALISM. 2.A political economic system in which the hierarchy of power was based on the premise that the king owned all the land in the kingdom. Essentially he claims that all English soil belongs to him.
  • Slide 9
  • Englands Invaders: William The Conqueror (1066-1087) 1.His most significant introduction into English society was the concept of FEUDALISM. 2.A political economic system in which the hierarchy of power was based on the premise that the king owned all the land in the kingdom. Essentially he claims that all English soil belongs to him. 3. Keeping a fourth for himself, granting a fourth to the church, he then parcels out the rest of English land to his men in exchange for their loyalty 4. With the birth of Feudalism many people became serfs - - the permanent servants to the Norman Lords 5. In 1086, he compiles The Doomsday Book, a record of all property. (Think of the census and IRS, all rolled into one.)
  • Slide 10
  • The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: 1.William the Conqueror used superior military might and ORGANIZATION to defeat King Harold and the Anglo- Saxons
  • Slide 11
  • The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: 1.William the Conqueror used superior military might and ORGANIZATION to defeat King Harold and the Anglo- Saxons 2.The Normans did not want to eradicate the Anglo-Saxon culture - - they wanted to RULE the people, not destroy them
  • Slide 12
  • The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: 1.William the Conqueror used superior military might and ORGANIZATION to defeat King Harold and the Anglo- Saxons 2.The Normans did not want to eradicate the Anglo-Saxon culture - - they wanted to RULE the people, not destroy them 3.Normans strengths - - administrative ability, emphasis on law & order, democratic and artistic tendencies
  • Slide 13
  • The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: 1.William the Conqueror used superior military might and ORGANIZATION to defeat King Harold and the Anglo- Saxons 2.The Normans did not want to eradicate the Anglo-Saxon culture - - they wanted to RULE the people, not destroy them 3.Normans strengths - - administrative ability, emphasis on law & order, democratic and artistic tendencies 4.The Normans brought England into mainstream of Europe - - Eastern Europe: the Netherlands, western France, Austria are more civilized
  • Slide 14
  • The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: The Feudal caste, property, and military system KING LORDLORDLORD KNIGHTSKNIGHTSKNIGHTS SQUIRESQUIRESQUIRE YEOMANYEOMANYEOMAN SERFSSERFSSERFS
  • Slide 15
  • The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: The Feudal System Developed in Two Ways - 1.Landowners wanted protection A. Paid a portion of the yield from their lands (King and his Lords wanted to be paid what they felt was their due.) B. Provided soldiers from their families C. Performed whatever other duties and homage were required
  • Slide 16
  • The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: The Feudal System Developed in Two Ways - 1.Landowners wanted protection A. Paid a portion of the yield from their lands (King and his Lords wanted to be paid what they felt was their due.) B. Provided soldiers from their families C. Performed whatever other duties and homage were required 2. Conquering princes and warlords would reward valued allies with grants of land. The land still technically belonged to the king or prince, but they administered it. 3. Serfs were not really slaves. Bottom of the feudal social order though. Not truly free: bound to the land they worked on. Owed service to the master of the land and were passed along from owner to owner.
  • Slide 17
  • The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: This feudal system inevitably begins to decline. Why?
  • Slide 18
  • The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: The growth of the commoners power also insured the growth of towns where merchants and craftspeople began to demand better rights.
  • Slide 19
  • The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: They began to form organizations called guilds
  • Slide 20
  • The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: Since wealth was becoming no longer based exclusively on land ownership, the feudal system begins to break apart
  • Slide 21
  • The Medieval Church 1.Clergy were important and powerful 2.Church owned and controlled a fourth of the land in England 3.Church had its own legal system 4.Church had its own tax system 5.Church leaders could speak with the religious leaders in other countries WITHOUT the permission of the King (No one else could do that!!!) 6.Church supervised education (Education meant POWER!!)
  • Slide 22
  • The Medieval Church GOD POPE CARDINALS BISHOPS PRIESTS, FRIARS, NUNS
  • Slide 23
  • The Crusades: A.Began in 1096 AD (30 years after Norman Conquest) B.Christians fought against Muslims along the Mediterranean Sea and in North Africa C.Prize Jerusalem and the Holy Land D.Europeans benefited from the contact with the higher civilizations of the Middle East. Exposure to mathematics, astronomy, architecture, and medicine
  • Slide 24
  • Medieval Language 1.Three languages spoken A. French by the Norman rulers B. Latin by the clergy and lawyers C. Anglo-Saxon (Old English) by the common people 2. Middle English A. Evolves over a period of 400 years B. Old English combines with the Norman French C. Latin terms are added to the language of the common people
  • Slide 25
  • Code of Knighthood and Chivalry: Out of the feudal system during the Medieval Period grew a sense of form and manners : Chivalry a system of ideals and behavior that governed knights and gentlemen. It also set the rules of war From the French word Chevalier (knight)
  • Slide 26
  • Code of Knighthood and Chivalry: Knights were required to 1.Defend his honor by honorable means 2.Set limits on the scope and nature of revenge that could be taken for real or fancied insults 3.Fight fairly even with Moslems or non- Christians 4.Love God 5.Be loyal to his King or prince 6.Practice Christian humility, kindness, and politeness to those of lower stations 7.Be generous with worldly goods and possessions Stations of a knight: PAGE SQUIREKNIGHT
  • Slide 27
  • Code of Knighthood and Chivalry: 1.If a knight failed to uphold these high principles he must do penance which might be participating in a Crusade or performing some religious duty 2.Some of these ideals are the same heroic qualities that the Anglo- Saxons admired in Beowulf. Some are different. Anglo-Saxons lived in a more brutal society than the upper classes during the Middle Ages. Stations of a knight: PAGE SQUIREKNIGHT
  • Slide 28
  • Courtly Love 1.By revering and acting in the name of a lady, a knight would become better and braver 2.Added to the Chivalric Code in the later Middle Ages 3.Each knight devoted himself to a lady of the court (liege lady) 4.Source the religious cult of the Virgin Mary, a non-sexual devotion 5.Rarely the knights wife, but rather a lady of a higher station who the knight could never hope to marry 6.Often the knight would only ever see his liege lady from a distance
  • Slide 29
  • Courtly Love How might a knight demonstrate Courtly Love? 1.Wear his ladys colors into battle 2.Glorify her in words 3.Be inspired by her 4.Revere her on a pedestal (like the Virgin Mary)
  • Slide 30
  • Courtly Love Chivalry and Courtly Love were only practiced by the upper classes NOT the common people Contributions of Chivalry and Courtly Love: 1.An improved and even idealized attitude toward women 2.The birth of the form of literature known as the Romance 3.A civilizing infl

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