Middle Ages or Medieval Period 1066-1485
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DESCRIPTIONMiddle Ages or Medieval Period 1066-1485. King Edward died without leaving a clear successor. He promised two-three people the kingdom. The final battle occurs at Hastings, England in 1066 between William of Normandy and Harold of Wessex. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Middle Ages or Medieval Period 1066-1485
King Edward died without leaving a clear successor. He promised two-three people the kingdom. The final battle occurs at Hastings, England in 1066 betweenWilliam of Normandy andHarold of Wessex.
William of Normandy (aka the Conqueror) becomes the new king of England in 1066Accomplishments:Built castles in England, includingthe Tower of LondonWrote Domesday Book,which was a book of propertyInstituted FeudalismIncorporated Frenchlanguage Bayeaux Tapestry
Feudalism,a system ofhierarchy
Stone castles and monasteries popped up all over the English countryside. The Normans evenimported stone from France.
William's half brother, Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, commissioned a tapestry to commemorate his brother's victorynow called the Bayeux Tapestry hand sewn cloth and embroidery 76.6 yards long depicting William's victory at Hastings.
William changed England's laws and inflicted harsh punishments for offenders. Murder became a punishable crime in England and slavery was abolished.
Oldest surviving public record. Used to settle land disputes and assess taxes.
William wanted to know who owned what, how much it was worth, and how much was owed to him as King in tax, rents, and military service.The Domesday Book
The combination of French (Norman) and Old English became Middle English -- the first time the English language was really beginning to have the vocabulary it has today.
Informationfrom http://en.wikip dia.org/wiki/Li t_of_English words_with_d al_French_an _AngloSaxon _variations
Anglo-Saxon Origin WordsOld French Origin WordsCow (Old English C)Beef (Anglo-Norman Beof; Old French Boef)Calf (Old English Cealf)Veal (Anglo-Norman Vel; Old French Veel, Veal)Swine (Old English Swn)Pork (Old French Porc)Sheep (Old English Scap) / Lamb (Old English Lamb)Mutton (Old French Moton)Hen (Old English Hen, Henn) / Chicken (Old English Cicen)Poultry (Old French Pouletrie)Deer (Old English Dor)Venison (Old Norman Venesoun)
Old Saxon Originkinglyasklordbring/bearsmellupholdbuyeldbeliefweeplawyershirtfallhuedarlingforgivefolkdrink (n)
Old French Originroyalenquire (inquire)liegecarryodorsupportpurchaseagefaithcryattorneyblouseautumncolourfavouritepardonpeoplebeverage Informationfrom http://en.wikip dia.org/wiki/Li t_of_English words_with_d al_French_an _AngloSaxon _variations
Geoffrey ChaucerConsidered the Father of English literature.Keen observer ofhuman natureAuthor of our majorpiece of literature,The Canterbury Tales.Wrote C.T. as a satireto criticize the corruptionof the Church.
Writing Style Unusual to choose Middle English for literature during this timeliterary works usually written in Latin or French Because Middle English considered ordinary, it might seem Chaucer's intended audience was the general population, not nobility
The Canterbury Tales The Prologue describes29 peopletheir occupationtheir clothing, their temperamenttheir flaws (sins) according to Chaucer, who is the 30th travelerChaucer wanted todepict people fromdifferent backgroundstraveling together.
Canterbury Cathedral These people, or pilgrims, were going to the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket, the martyred priest of Canterbury Cathedral.
They either were going to pay their respect or ask for a blessing by touching the tomb of the dead priest (archbishop).
Summary of The PrologueThe pilgrims meet up at the Tabard Inn and are traveling together for protection.
The host of the inn decides to go also and proposes an activity to pass the time away while they are travelingAny guesses on what kind of contest?
A storytelling contest. The innkeeper would judge the stories and the winner would get a prize paid for by the othersa nice, hot supper when they got back to the Tabard InnEach pilgrim would tell 2 stories on the way and 2 stories on the way back.
How many stories would Chaucer have if he had completed them all?116But Chaucer died only having completedThe PrologueTwenty storiesTwo unfinished stories
Another look at Old English
First eighteen lines of The Prologue in Middle EnglishWhan that Aprill, with his shoures sooteThe droghte of March hath perced to the rooteAnd bathed every veyne in swich licour,Of which vertu engendred is the flourWhan Zephirus eek with his sweete breethInspired hath in every holt and heethThe tendre croppes, and the yonge sonneHath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne,And smale foweles maken melodye, That slepen al the nyght with open eye(So priketh hem Nature in hir corages)Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimagesAnd palmeres for to seken straunge strondesTo ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londesAnd specially from every shires endeOf Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende,The hooly blisful martir for to sekeThat hem hath holpen, whan that they were seeke.
TranslationWhen in April the sweet showers fallThat pierce March's drought to the root and allAnd bathed every vein in liquor that has powerTo generate therein and sire the flowerWhen Zephyr also has with his sweet breath,Filled again, in every holt and heath,The tender shoots and leaves, and the young sunHis half course in the sign of the Ram has run,And many little birds make melodyThat sleep through all the night with open eye(So Nature pricks them on to ramp and rage)Then folk do long to go on pilgrimage,And palmers to go seeking out strange strands,To distant shrines well known in distant lands. And specially from every shire's endOf England they to Canterbury went,The holy blessed martyr there to seekWho helped them when they lay so ill and weak
Satire: a literary element in literature ridiculing or poking fun of an institution (religion, gov't, education, etc.) in the hopes of changing it using wit, sarcasm, or irony.
Irony: a literary element that depicts a difference/ contradiction in what is said/meant; what is said/done; what is expected/happens