britain 1066 1485

Download Britain  1066 1485

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Leelo Kaskmann: history

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  • 1. TheNormanConquest

2.

  • The Norman king William I crosses the channel
  • TheBattleofHastings
  • Anglo-Saxons are defeated, king Harold II dies
  • The Normans crush resistance in the rest of the country

3.

  • tells the story of the Norman Conquest
  • is 231 feet long
  • commissioned by bishop Odo for the Bayeux Cathedral

4.

  • French and Latin elements predominate in aristocratic circles
  • Anglo-Saxon elements among lower classes
  • French spoken at court
  • Latin in the church

5.

  • Their fellow countrymen in France
  • England & France almost one country
  • Numerous wars esp. the Hundred Years War (1337-1431)
  • The battle of Agincourt
  • Joan of Arc
  • England -- separate from France

6.

  • 2.Their Scottish, Irish, Welsh neighbours
  • Attempts to conquer Scotland unsuccessful
  • 11th century Henry II sends an army to Ireland not very successful
  • End of 13th century resistance in Wales broken

7.

  • FEUDALSYSTEMstrict distinction between classes
  • KING most powerful
  • Ownsland, leads the army, makes laws
  • ARISTOCRACY :
  • BARONS AND LORDS have absolute power in their territories

8.

  • MIDDLECLASSES :
  • KNIGHTSsoldiers who fought for the lords
  • MERCHANTS Britains first businessmen, lived in towns
  • YEOMEN farmers, owned small pieces of land

9.

  • LOWERCLASS:
  • VILLEINSor SERFS are given land to work, but dont own any; most produce goes to the lord
  • SLAVES 1/10th of the population, are owned by the lord

10.

  • POLITICALPOWERbelongsto theKING :
  • gives land, grants privileges, levies taxes
  • Domesday Book (1086) the first census lists names of landownersand their land

11.

  • MAGNACARTA 1215. King John agrees to consult a council of the aristocracy.
  • In 1240, the council is called a parliament
  • In 1349, the Council of the Commoners is formed
  • Dynastic conflicts Wars of the Roses end in 1471 the House of York winning the war

12.

  • The greatest power after the king and the nobles
  • 11th century king controls the Church, appoints bishops
  • 12th century conflict between Church and State
  • The murder ofThomas Becket , the Archbishop of Canterbury

13.

  • Majority of peopleilliterate
  • 11th century -- the Church set up schools
  • Monasteries leading centres of culture
  • 13th century -- Oxford and Cambridge Universities

14.

  • Economically -- adevelopingcountry
  • Merchants traded in wool and textiles
  • Lived in towns
  • London a busy trading centre
  • Many Anglo-Saxon laws in force
  • New laws by Normans Common Law

15.

  • Life very hard
  • 95% of people live in the country
  • Land major source of food
  • Increasing population not enough food
  • Disease widespread
  • Black Death bubonic plague 1348
  • 1/3 of the population dies

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