the medieval period also known as “middle ages” 1066-1485

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  • The Medieval Period also known as Middle Ages 1066-1485

  • The Norman Conquest:Battle of Hastings - 1066 A.D.Harold, King of England was defeated by William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy (France) Systematic invasion, including inventory and seizure of propertyMartial law was put into effectStrong central government was set up with clearly defined lines of authority

  • Reigned for twenty-one years; succession assured at his deathInvasion of England was to support his claim that he had been promised succession to the English throneHe was an efficient and ruthless soldier & a good administratorWith the help of his followers he was able to conquer the entire countrySlaughtered many A-S nobility & replaced them with Normans, accounting for clear historical break between A-S & Norman-dominated England.

    William the Conqueror

  • The Normans:Name derived from NorthmanMainly descended from Vikings who had seized and remained in northwestern France, which became known as NormandyAfter more than 100 years in France, Normans adopted many French customs & had own variation of French language, Norman-FrenchUse of stone far exceeded that of English, but could not match A-S in learning or as artisans and craftsmen

  • The Normans: Superb soldiersExcellent administrators & lawyersGreat borrowers & adaptersThey Lacked:InventivenessOriginal ideasWilliam subdued the whole land partly because he could adopt & use institutions of the highly centralized & stable A-S government.

  • Land and the Feudal System

  • Land and the Feudal SystemAfter the invasion, William retained much of the gained land. He then granted land to those who fought faithfully for him.The year 1066 brought the largest change of land ownership in the history of England.

  • Land and the Feudal System

    William felt that the land was his by right of conquest and that he was free to deed land to his vassals by royal charter, expecting obedience and service in return.In A-S period, king kept loyalty of his warriors by sharing spoils of war. In medieval period, land replaced plunder as commodity bonding king and lord to vassal.

  • Land and the Feudal SystemAfter the invasion, William retained much of the gained land. He then granted land to those who fought for him.

    He felt that the land was his by right of conquest and that he was free to deed land to his vassals by royal charter, expecting obedience and service in return.

  • This system was known as Feudalism.

  • Feudalism wasa complicated system of landholding

  • Land and the Feudal SystemNo one owned land independently but onlyas a vassal of an overlord, who in turn owed allegiance either to some great noble or the king.

  • Feudalism was:An elaborate chain of loyalties A system of paying rent through military service to overlords

  • Problems of FeudalismThe grants William gave were mainly the estatesof certain Anglo-Saxons who had died at the Conquest.

  • Land and the Feudal SystemThe boundaries of these estates were frequently vague, and the first 20 years of Norman rule saw many disputes about property.

  • Land and the Feudal System

    Another problem: feudalism was like a caste system.

  • Land and the Feudal SystemAnother problem: There were disputes among landowners

  • Benefits of FeudalismWilliam writes a complete inventory of all property called the Domesday Book, the book of judgments.

  • Land and the Feudal SystemThis was an administrative feat without equal anyplace else in Europe.Taxes in England could now be based on real property.

  • The Medieval ChurchThe single institution that did the most to promote unity, (a common culture and a common set of beliefs),was the Medieval Church.Latin, the language of the Church, became the language of all educated persons.In the Middle Ages, no subject was studied as an end in itself, But rather as a demonstration of Gods hand in the world.

  • Medieval LifeMost people lived in the country & were attached to aFeudal manor.As period progressed, farming was replaced by herding.

  • Medieval Life

    Sheep herding causes a proliferation of sheep in England by end of 13th century, there were probably 18 million sheep in England.

    Cottages become small mills for spinning wool because many people became involved in the wool industry.

  • Medieval Life

    This allows the common people to be able to pay what they owe their overlords in wages rather than labor.Shift from agrarian to pastoral economy forced many peasants into towns. Labor shortage caused by Black Death temporarily improved peasants living conditions.

  • Medieval LifeSome large towns and cities had grown up, mostly in the south of England and related to the court. London is an example.Population shift into cities further eroded feudal system because these peasants were no longer tied to manor.

  • Wool production causes cities to build up in the north. Medieval Life

  • These populous centers, far from the influence of the French court, developed forms of literature, songs and ballads, and a native drama with a good deal of color and pageantry. While songs and ballads had varied subjects, medieval drama was generally religious, depicting events related to Scripture.

    A whole new class of merchants grew up.

  • Guilds: societies to regulate prices & standards Guilds were one result of the rise of the middle classof industrious free men living in towns.

  • Guilds

    Later, cottage workers form guilds to assure fair wages & prices & good standards of materials and workmanship.

  • Guilds ~ Encouraged an extended family life. Often, a master would have apprentices and journeymen living with him. Guilds were organized around various professions, and were also religious societies.

  • This is the period of the great English cathedrals, Winchester and Lincoln, Salisbury and Durham.

  • Often these cathedrals took hundreds of years to complete.These huge structures created a revolution in architectureas designers wrestled with the difficulties associated withsize and complexity. More than houses of worship, cathedrals were histories written in stone, stained glass & wood, telling Biblical stories, faith made manifest.Much of the communal life of the city centered around these cathedrals.The first English dramas were performed here.

  • Medieval Life ~ austere in many ways. Travel was difficultFood offered little variety, even for the rich Winters brought a very limited & unwholesome diet

    Countryside, however, and towns were colorful & beautiful without smoke of factoriesDress was bright and varied

  • English LawWhen William the Conqueror had subdued the whole island, and by terrible examples had tamed the minds of the rebels, he decided to place the government of the people on a written basis and subject them to the rules of law. ~Richard Fitzneal, 12th century English cleric

    One of Williams innovations was to institute written public documents for most government actions.

  • English LawCommon law took root during this period. This refers to law that is common to the whole country and all its people, in contrast to kinds of law applying only to certain classes of people.

  • English LawLaw of primogeniture came into effect.

  • Primogeniture gave the firstborn son exclusive right toinherit his fathers titles, lands, and estates.

  • OrdealsDuring the early part of this period, matters of law were still settled by ordeals.How peoples innocence or guilt was settledDisputes between two people also settled by ordeals ~ ex: Sir Gawain and the Green KnightTrial by ordeal often involved tests like walking on hot coals or swimming with hands chained behind ones back.

  • In 1215, Pope Innocent III declared that the ordeal system was irrational.

  • Gradually, in England, people who were indicted were asked to abide by the judgment of their neighbors. In this way, the JURY SYSTEM came into being.In 1215, a group of angry barons forced King John to sign the MAGNA CARTA, or Great Charter.

  • MAGNA CARTA foreshadowed the right of trial by jury, habeas corpus, or the right not to be illegally detained.

    Habeas corpus

  • Habeas corpus also foreshadowed the beginnings of representative government in parliament.

  • The Crusades, Hundred Years War, and the Wars of the RosesThe Crusades100 Years WarWars of the Roses

  • The Crusades, Hundred Years War, and the Wars of the RosesThe Crusades:Most crusades begin originally to rescue Jerusalem from Turks, but ended in raiding, looting, and tangled politics1095, 1191,1202,1217,1270

    100 Years War:Wars of the Roses:

  • The Crusades, Hundred Years War, and the Wars of the RosesThe Crusades:Christian Europe is exposed to Arabic culture

    100 Years War:Wars of the Roses:

  • The Crusades, Hundred Years War, and the Wars of the RosesThe Crusades:Encouraged chivalry

    100 Years War:Wars of the Roses:

  • The Crusades, Hundred Years War, and the Wars of the RosesThe Crusades:Most crusades begin originally to rescue Jerusalem from Turks, but ended in raiding, looting, and tangled politicsChristian Europe is exposed to Arabic cultureEncouraged chivalry

    100 Years War:(1357-1453) War between France and England due to England not wanting to relinquish French possessionsWars of the Roses:

  • The Crusades, Hundred Years War, and the Wars of the RosesThe Crusades:-(11-1200s)Most crusades begin originally to rescue Jerusalem from Tur