the medieval period 1066-1485. in the beginning…. the normans invade england in 1066. william...
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The Medieval Period1066-1485
In the beginning.The Normans invade England in 1066. William the Conqueror takes the crown.He brings Feudalism to EnglandFeudalism: Political and economic system in which the king owned all of the land in the kingdomWilliam gave of land to himself, to the church, and the rest to loyal nobles (barons)Barons give William warriors called knightsBarons swear their allegiance to the king, knights swear their allegiance to the barons, etc.Defeated Anglo-Saxons are reduced to serfs (peasants), bound to the land
ThenWilliams successors were less organized than he was, which resulted in barons fighting for land and power.In 1154, Henry II takes over the crownHe is one of Englands most memorable rulersReformed the judicial systeminstituted royal courts and initiated the formation of English Common Law.His wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, brought the Code of Chivalry with her from France.
Code of ChivalryCode by which knights lived byThe ideal knight respected and defended the church, his king, his country, and stood up to injusticeThe qualities of a knight included:Faith, modesty, loyalty, courtesy, bravery and honorTo honor and respect womenTo go on quests, like the Crusades
SuccessorsRichard the Lion-HeartedFights in the CrusadesJohn (Richards brother)Signs Magna Carta in 1215Limits the funds royalty can spend and gives more authority into the hands of baronsJohns son, Henry IIICreated an advisory council of barons that met regularly.Edward I Established the inclusion of commoners (House of Commons) as well as barons (House of Lords) in the council. (Parliament)
Decline of FeudalismMedieval towns begin to grow, which leads to a decline of feudalism since wealth was no longer based on land ownership.Commoners are now getting more and more power.The flipside to this is that the growth of towns meant crowding and poor living conditions which resulted in disease.
Strife in EnglandBlack Death killed one third of Englands population1.5 million killed between 1348-1350Peasants Revolt of 1381Abdication of Richard IISupporter of Chaucer (Canterbury Tales)Wars of the RosesCivil War between the House of Lancaster and the House of York over the rightful heir to the throne
Medieval LiteratureRomance emerges imaginative adventure story concerned with noble heroes, gallant love, chivalric code of honor, and daring deedsIdealized world of castles, heroes, courtly love, and spellsThis countered the real world of plagues, battles, and civil unrestReligious faith was a vital element of the literature of the time periodKing Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table become the medieval heroes
Author is anonymousWritten c. 1400 in Middle English (language spoken after the Norman invaston of 1066 thru 15th century)Important because:Alliterative poetryEpic poemMedieval romance
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight