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  • i

    oi.uchicago.edu

    T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F C H I C A G O

    O R I E N T A L I N S T I T U T E P U B L I C A T I O N S

    V O L U M E 128

    Series Editors

    Leslie Schramer

    and

    Thomas G. Urban

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    Erich F. Schmidt (second from right) and Donald E. McCown (second from left) with the Seymour Family. Persepolis, East of Harem, 1935

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    THE ORIGINS OF STATE ORGANIZATIONS

    IN PREHISTORIC HIGHLAND FARS,

    SOUTHERN IRAN

    EXCAVATIONS AT TALL-E BAKUN

    by

    ABBAS ALIZADEH

    with contributions by

    Masoumeh Kimiaie, Marjan Mashkour, and Naomi F. Miller

    O R I E N T A L I N S T I T U T E P U B L I C A T I O N S V O L U M E 1 2 8THE ORIENTAL INSTITUTE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

    CHICAGO ILLINOIS

    In Association with the Iranian Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization

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    Library of Congress Control Number: 2006932376ISBN: 1-885923-36-8

    ISSN: 0069-3367

    2006 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.Published 2006. Printed in the United States of America.

    The Oriental Institute, Chicago

    Co-managing Editors

    Thomas A. Holland and Thomas G. Urban

    Series Editors Acknowledgments

    The assistance of Lindsay DeCarlo and Katie L. Johnson is acknowledged in the production of this volume.

    Title Page Illustration

    Goat/Sheep Motif from Tall-e Bakun A (fig. 47:B)

    Spine Illustration

    Abstract Human Motif from Tall-e Bakun A (fig. 46:A)

    Printed by Edwards Brothers, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Services Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984.

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    Dedicated to the Memory of

    Donald E. McCown and Erich F. Schmidt

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    TABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ..................................................................................................................................... xi

    LIST OF CHARTS ..................................................................................................................................................... xiii

    LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................................... xv

    LIST OF PLATES ...................................................................................................................................................... xvii

    LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................................................... xix

    PREFACE .................................................................................................................................................................. xxi

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................................................................................................................... xxiii

    BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................................................................................................................... xxv

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 1

    THE TWIN MOUND OF TALL-E BAKUN .............................................................................................................. 5

    Tall-e Bakun B .............................................................................................................................................. 5

    Tall-e Bakun A ............................................................................................................................................. 5

    Hypothetical Etymology of Bakun ............................................................................................................ 6

    THE TERMINOLOGY OF CHRONOLOGICAL PHASES ........................................................................................... 6

    AN OVERVIEW OF THE PREHISTORIC CULTURAL SEQUENCE IN FARS ............................................................. 7

    Formative Fars? Phase ............................................................................................................................... 7

    Archaic Fars Phase ........................................................................................................................................ 8

    Early Fars Phase ........................................................................................................................................... 10

    Middle Fars Phase ......................................................................................................................................... 11

    Late Fars Phase ............................................................................................................................................. 12

    Proto-Banesh (Lapui) Phase (40003700 B.C.) ............................................................................................ 12

    SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY .................................................................................................................................... 13

    CHAPTER 2. METHODOLOGY AND THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS ....................................................... 15

    INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................... 15

    CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................................... 15

    THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS OF ADMINISTRATIVE TECHNOLOGY .................................................................. 17

    TALL-E BAKUN A IN ITS REGIONAL CONTEXT .................................................................................................. 18

    MOBILE PASTORALISM IN LATE PREHISTORY ................................................................................................... 20

    The Zagros Mountains .................................................................................................................................. 20

    Lowland Susiana ........................................................................................................................................... 21

    The Central Plateau ....................................................................................................................................... 22

    MOBILE PASTORALISM AND CERAMIC PRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 22

    THE ANALOGY OF MOBILE PASTORALISM ........................................................................................................ 24

    CHAPTER 3. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES, AND LAND USE IN FARS, IRAN ................ 29

    GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES ............................................................................................. 29

    TRADITIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL ZONES IN FARS ................................................................................................. 30

    Sardsir/Sarhad ............................................................................................................................................... 30

    Motadel ......................................................................................................................................................... 31

    Garmsir ......................................................................................................................................................... 31

    vii

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    SEDENTARY AND SEMI-SEDENTARY LIFE .......................................................................................................... 31

    Villages ......................................................................................................................................................... 31

    Towns ........................................................................................................................................................... 33

    THE ETHNOGRAPHIC PRESENT: MOBILE PASTORALISM ................................................................................... 33

    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................................... 36

    CHAPTER 4. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN FARS PROVINCE, IRAN .................................................... 39

    INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................... 39

    PART 1: ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN FARS ......................................................................................... 39

    The Oriental Institute Excavations at Tall-e Bakun A and B ........................................................................ 39

    2004 Joint ichto-Oriental Institute Excavations in the Marv Dasht Region ................................................... 40

    The Japanese Excavations in Fars ......................................................