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B e n c h m a r k e d u c a t i o n c o m p a n y
Theme: Matter • Solids • Measuring Matter • Liquids and Gases
Science
Comprehension • Make connections
Word Study/Vocabulary • Use context clues to determine word
meaning
Science Big Idea • All objects and substances in the world
are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass.
Level N/30
• Summarize Information
A c t i v i t i e s
Using Navigators Chapter Books
Explicit Strategy Instruction Use the complete guide to model, guide, and support students as they apply comprehension and word- study strategies. Use portions of the guide to scaffold reading instruction for students who do not need modeled instruction.
Small-Group Discussions Introduce the book and model strategies. Ask the group to set a purpose for reading based on the Introduction. Instruct students to read the book, or parts of the book, independently. Then tell them to use the Small-Group Discussion Guide as they discuss the book together.
Independent Reading Encourage students to select titles at their independent reading levels. After reading, instruct students to respond to the text in reader response journals or notebooks.
Core Lesson Planning Guide
© 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC. All rights reserved. Teachers may photocopy the reproducible pages for classroom use. No other part of the guide may be reproduced or transmitted in whole or in part in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
ISBN: 978-1-4108-5213-72
Pages 4–6: Model Strategies: Introduction–Chapter 1 • Monitor-Reading Strategy: Make Connections
• Comprehension Strategy: Identify Sequence of Events
• Use Context Clues to Determine Word Meaning: Synonyms Using , or
Page 3: Prepare to Read • Build Content Background
• Introduce the Book
Pages 7–8: Guide Strategies: Chapter 2 • Monitor-Reading Strategy: Make Connections
• Comprehension Strategy: Identify Sequence of Events
• Use Context Clues to Determine Word Meaning: Direct Definitions
Pages 9–10: Apply Strategies: Chapter 3–Conclusion • Monitor-Reading Strategy: Make Connections
• Comprehension Strategy: Identify Sequence of Events
• Use Graphic Features to Interpret Information: Photographs
This five-day lesson plan shows one way to use the chapter book for explicit strategy instruction.
Build Content Background • Write the word matter on the board. Explain that
everything on Earth is made of matter. Ask students to name some things that are matter. Prompt them with an idea of your own.
Say: When I think about matter, I think about solid objects such as the books, desks, and chairs in our classroom.
• Encourage students to share their ideas. Write these on chart paper as students mention them. Point out that some things, such as air and water, belong to different categories of matter.
• Before students begin reading, preview some key words that are not found in the glossary of Solids. Make sure that students can use each word in a sentence. If they have difficulty, use a dictionary to define the word.
object definite space original
experiment steam oxygen measure
• Tell students that some of the difficult words in the book are defined in the glossary.
Introduce the Book • Give students a copy of the book. Tell them to read the title
and skim through the book.
Ask: What will this book be about? How do you know? What pictures might help you determine what the book will be about?
• Explain that Solids is about matter that has a definite shape and keeps its shape when you hold it or move it.
• To introduce content vocabulary and text and graphic features found in this book, use the inside front cover of the book.
Informal Assessment Tips
1. Assess students’ ability to preview a book’s contents by answering questions about it.
2. Document informal observations in a folder or notebook.
3. Keep the folder or notebook at the small-group reading table for handy reference.
© 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC Solids 3
Meeting Individual Needs
For students who struggle with previewing a book by answering questions about it, ask additional questions such as these: How many chapters are in the book? What features besides text are in the book? Model finding the answers.
Put a glass of water on a table. Ask students to name objects they see that are solid (table, glass). Ask them to describe the traits of things that are solid. (They take up space; you can see and touch them.) Then repeat the process, asking students to name things that are liquid and to describe their traits.
Write the word matter on the board. Explain that it has more than one meaning. Invite a volunteer to use it in a sentence. For example, “What is the matter?” Explain that in this book, the word matter means "anything that has mass and takes up space."
This five-day lesson plan shows one way to use the chapter book for explicit strategy instruction.
Prepare to Read nglish anguage earnersE L L
original
Before Reading Monitor-Reading Strategy: Make Connections
• Say: Good readers make connections as they read. They may make text-to-self connections. These are connections readers make between what they are reading and their own lives. These connections can help readers better understand what they are reading.
• Use a real-life example of making connections. Say: I recently read a book about the planets. It told about their
features and their distances from Earth. That reminded me of looking at Venus in the sky through a telescope. I could make a connection between the information in the book and what I already knew from personal experience. That will help me remember what I read.
Say: Yesterday we previewed the book Solids. Today we will make text-to-self connections as we learn about properties of matter.
• Read pages 2–3 aloud while students follow along. Say: I already know something about different kinds of matter. I
know that a cup is a solid object because I can touch it and see it, and it does not change shape. I know that water is a different kind of matter. I can touch it and feel it, but it changes shape depending on its container. I’ll write this information on a self-stick note and place it on the page where I made the connection.
During Reading Set a Purpose for Reading
• Ask students to read pages 4–9 silently. Instruct them to write any connections they make between the text and their own experiences on self-stick notes and place them in their books. Explain that they will share their text-to-self connections after reading the chapter.
4 Solids © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC
ABOUT THE STRATEGY Make Connections
What? Good readers make connections when they link what they are reading to something they already know. Readers make three types of connections. 1. Text-to-self: a personal connection
with the text 2. Text-to-text: a connection between the
text being read and a previously read text
3. Text-to-world: a connection between the text and something in the world at large
Why? Making connections gets readers more involved with the text and helps them understand and remember what they read.
When? Good readers make connections before reading to set a purpose. They make connections during reading to monitor and clarify their understanding. They refer back to connections after reading to reflect on what they have read and to deepen and extend their understanding.
How? Good readers pause and wonder about the text. They ask themselves questions that help make the three types of connections, including
1. Text-to-self: This reminds me of something I already know about. That is . . .
2. Text-to-text: This book has similar information to that in . . .
3. Text-to-world: What’s going on in this book is like what’s happening in the world right now in . . .
Readers note these connections in a journal or on self-stick notes.
Model Strategies: Introduction–Chapter 1
After Reading Discuss the Reading
• Ask students to share the text-to-self connections they made with the information in the text. Point out that because these are connections to personal experiences, students are writing about themselves, and their notes should contain the words I, me, and my.
• Discuss with students how making connections with their own lives—their knowledge and their experiences—helps them better understand the text.
• Ask: What did you already know about the different kinds of matter and their properties? What information did the text add to what you know?
• Tell students to turn to page 9 and locate the checkpoint. Explain that reading more about a topic will help them better understand what they have already read about the topic. Assign pairs of students to complete the activity.
• For text-dependent comprehension practice, ask the questions for the Introduction and Chapter 1 found on the Comprehension Through Deductive Reasoning Card for this chapter book.
Comprehension Strategy: Identify Sequence of Events
• Explain that good readers recognize the steps in a process, whether the steps are in a numbered list or in sentences with sequence words such as first, next, and last. Good readers understand that the steps must be in a certain order and that the steps must be followed in that order.
• Say: When I read instructions, directions, or any text that tells about a process, I pay attention to the sequence of events. I do each step the way the author wants me to do it. I do the steps in the order the author tells me. If I do the steps incorrectly or out of order, I know the end result may not come out the way I want.
• Distribute the graphic organizer “Identify Sequence of Events” (blackline master, page 14). You may want to make a chart-size copy of the graphic organizer or use a transparency.
• Explain that as students read, they will complete the first two boxes together. They will complete the last box in pairs or independently.
Informal Assessment Tips
1. Watch students as they write connections on self-stick notes or in their journals.
2. In a folder or notebook, jot down what you see each student doing.
3. Students should be making connections with their own lives as they read. Document students who are and are not using this monitor- reading strategy.
© 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC Solids 5
Meeting Individual Needs
For students who struggle with this activity, model the strategy again and remind them that making connections between the text and their own experiences will help them better understand what they are reading.
Rapid readers can expand on their notes and write in more detail in their journals about their connections to the text.
original
6 Solids © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC
Comprehension Strategy: Identify Sequence of Events (continued)
• Ask students to turn to the Hands-on Experiment on page 6.
Say: This experiment has three sections: What you need, What you do, and What happens? The What you do section gives the steps in the experiment in a numbered list. I can write these steps in paragraph form. Instead of numbers, I’ll use signal words such as first, next, then, and last to show the order of the steps.
Instruct students to follow along as you read step 1 aloud.
Say: The first step is to fill the glass with water. I’ll begin my paragraph with this sentence: “First, fill the glass with water.” I use the signal word first so that readers will know that this is the first thing they should do.
Write the first sentence. Use the graphic organizer on this page to continue your think-aloud as you write sentences with the signal words next, then, and last for steps 2–4.
• Read aloud the completed paragraph.
Say: Both the numbered list and my paragraph give the steps in the experiment in the correct order. To show the order, the list uses numbers and the paragraph uses signal words such as first, next, then, and last.
Use Context Clues to Determine Word Meaning: Synonyms Using , or
• Tell students that words or phrases that have the same or almost the same meaning are called synonyms. If you know the meaning of one synonym, you can figure out the meaning of the unfamiliar synonym. Ask students to find the word states on page 3.
Say: This boldfaced word is in the glossary, but it is also defined right in the text. Authors sometimes use , or to compare two words or phrases with similar meanings. States are different forms. I know this because the author used , or. Because I know the meaning of the phrase different forms, I know the meaning of states.
Point out the word properties on page 3. Tell students that the author has included a synonym for the word.
Ask: What is the synonym for properties? (characteristics) How did you identify the synonym? (It is the word that follows , or.)
• Tell students that they will look for additional synonyms to help them figure out the meanings of unfamiliar words as they continue to read Solids.
Reader Response
Suppose you were looking at a solid, a liquid, and a gas under a microscope. How would you be able to tell which was which? Write a response in your journal and share your thoughts with a group member.
Chapter 1: Volume Experiment
First fill the measuring cup with water. Next pick up the measuring cup and feel its weight. Then put the rocks in the measuring cup and check the water line. Last pick up the measuring cup and feel its weight again.
Before Reading Monitor-Reading Strategy: Make Connections
• Instruct students to look at their self-stick notes or in their journals to review the text-to-self connections they made yesterday. Ask them how making these connections helped them understand the text. Discuss their responses.
• Say: Today we are going to make connections between the properties of solids and our own experiences with these properties.
• Read pages 12–13 aloud while students follow along.
Say: As I read about the differences between different solids, I can connect that information to what I know. For example, I can compare the paperweight on my desk to an apple. Both are round and hard. But the paperweight is much heavier than an apple, and I can’t eat the paperweight!
Ask students to tell about any connections they can make between the information in Chapter 2 and what they know about the properties of solids.
During Reading Set a Purpose for Reading • Instruct students to finish reading Chapter 2. Remind them to
jot down connections they make on self-stick notes and place them in the appropriate places in their book. For example, students may connect the property of texture with what they know about the smooth texture of an apple versus the bumpy texture of an orange.
After Reading Discuss the Reading • Invite students to share their text-to-self connections and talk
about how the connections helped them better understand the text.
• Ask: What have you learned about the properties of solids?
• For text-dependent comprehension practice, ask the questions for Chapter 2 found on the Comprehension Through Deductive Reasoning Card for this chapter book.
© 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC Solids 7
Monitor ELL students as they read Chapter 2 to see whether they are jotting down connections. If they are not, it may be because they do not understand the strategy. Model it again, using information from Chapter 2. If students are writing connections, make sure they can explain how the connections link to the text.
Meeting Individual Needs
For students who struggle with the strategy, model it again. Then ask them to make one connection between the text in Chapter 2 and something they have seen or experienced before. Review how the two things are connected.
Rapid readers can review their connections and put them into groups. For example, they might group them according to whether the connections tell about things they have seen or things they have experienced.
Guide Strategies: Chapter 2
Chapter 2 (continued)
Reader Response
Think of a solid object in your room at home. Write down five properties of the object that would help someone identify it. Write a response in your journal and share your thoughts with a group member.
8 Solids © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC
Comprehension Strategy: Identify Sequence of Events • Review the “Identify Sequence of Events” graphic organizer, and
remind students that the steps in a process are written in a certain order that must be followed. To show the sequence, the steps are written in a numbered list or in a paragraph with signal words such as first, next, then, and finally.
• Tell students to look at the Hands-on Experiment on pages 14–15.
Ask: What is the first step? (Fill one-eight of the container with uncooked rice.) What signal word can we use in our sentence to tell readers that this is the first step? (First) Write the first sentence on the graphic organizer.
• Use the completed graphic organizer on this page to help students write sentences for steps 2–4. Remind them to use signal words in the steps. Provide support for students who are struggling with this strategy.
Use Context Clues to Determine Word Meaning: Direct Definitions • Read aloud the sentence containing the word observe on
page 13. Explain that the author gives a direct definition to help the reader understand the meaning of the word.
Say: In Chapter 1 we looked at words that the author defined by writing synonyms for them after , or. The sentence with the word observe also contains , or. But instead of giving a synonym for observe, the sentence gives a definition of it. By looking at the words that follow , or, I know that observe means “to look carefully.”
• Call students’ attention to the word record on page 13. Say: The sentence with the word record also contains , or. The
words that follow , or give a definition of record. The words tell me that record means to “write down.”
• Tell students that they will continue to use context clues to determine the meanings of unknown words as they read Solids. Learning the definitions of these words will help them understand the new information in the book.
• For additional practice, instruct students to complete the blackline master on page 16.
Chapter 2: Properties of Solids
First fill one-eighth of the container with uncooked rice. Next put the ball on the rice. Then put on the container and turn the container over. Finally shake the container side to side until the ball pops up.
1. physical properties the way matter looks, feels, smells, sounds, and tastes
2. texture the feel of something
3. brittle breakable
4. mass the amount of matter in an object
5. density the amount of an object’s mass compared to its volume
6. chemical properties the way matter acts during a chemical
© 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC Solids 9
Apply Strategies: Chapter 3–Conclusion
Before Reading Monitor-Reading Strategy: Make Connections
• Instruct students to look at their self-stick notes or in their journals to review the text-to-self connections they made yesterday. Discuss how these connections helped them understand the text.
• Say: Today we will make connections between information about how solids change and what we have read about solids changing in other books or magazine articles. These kinds of connections…