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Defining Comprehension Strategies and Instructional Strategies Ashanti Banks Walden University Dr. Martha Moore READ 6707G-1 Reading and Literacy Growth January 24, 2016

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Defining Comprehension Strategies and Instructional Strategies

Defining Comprehension Strategies and Instructional Strategies

Ashanti Banks Walden University Dr. Martha Moore READ 6707G-1 Reading and Literacy Growth January 24, 2016

How does Reading Comprehension affect Intermediate Literacy Learners?Reading is a multifaceted process that develops with practice. Reading comprehension derives an understanding of what the writer is trying to convey and makes use of that information whether its for fact gathering, learning a new skill, or for pleasure.Without comprehension, reading is a frustrating, pointless exercise in word calling. Reading comprehension helps students develop the skills to become better readers.Without reading comprehension skills, the reader wouldnt be able to use the tools to gather any information or use the tools effectively as a successful literacy learner.

Comprehension StrategiesComprehension strategies are sets of steps that good readers use to make sense of text (Adler 2001). Those strategies are:Monitoring ComprehensionMetacognitionGraphic/Semantic organizersAnswering QuestionsGenerating QuestionsRecognizing Story StructureSummarizing

Comprehension Strategy: Metacognition

Comprehension Strategy: MetacognitionMetacognitive practices help students become aware of their strengths and weaknesses as learners, writers, readers (Chick 2009). Metacognition is critical for reading success: It contributes to reading comprehension and it promotes academic learning (Afflerbach 2013)The metacognitive comprehension strategy is used by the intermediate literacy learner to assess their awareness of many comprehension strategies used before, during, and after reading the text (Reutzel & Cooter, 2016). It can be used before a lesson through the practice of making predictions. It could be used during a lesson by allowing the students to summarize what has been read and identify main events. Metacognition can be used after a reading lesson through activities that assess their new level of understanding of what they read.

Comprehension Strategy: Graphic Organizing

Comprehension Strategy: Graphic OrganizersGraphic organizers illustrate concepts and relationships between concepts in a text using diagrams. They assist literacy learners in reading and understanding textbooks and picture books.Graphic organizing is a great comprehension strategy that assist intermediate literacy learners in comprehending the differences between fictional and non-fiction text.Graphic organizers also assist intermediate literacy learners in developing better summaries regarding various texts that they are reading.

Instructional StrategiesInstructional strategies are various methods used in teaching in order to help activate students' curiosity, engage them in learning, probe critical thinking skills, to keep them on task, create useful classroom interaction, and enhance their learning of specific content.Students learn best when they are truly engaged in what they are learning. Those learners are more successful when the lessons are:Appropriately ChallengingBased on Real-World Problems/SituationsPurposefulMeaningful/Interesting

Instructional Strategies:Think Aloud Strategy

Instructional Strategies: Think Aloud StrategyThe think aloud strategy is utilized by the teacher to model reading comprehension to literacy learners .This instructional strategy allows literacy learners to verbalize what they are thinking as they are reading a specific text.The think aloud strategy is used be teachers to access a literacy learners prior knowledge before reading a new passage as well as monitor comprehension as they progress and begin reading more difficult text.

Instructional Strategies: Think-Pair-Share

Instructional Strategies: Think-Pair-ShareThink-pair-share (TPS) is a collaborative instructional strategy focuses attention and engage students in comprehending the reading material.Think-Pair-Share helps students to think individually about a topic or answer to a question. After thinking, the students collaborate and share their ideas and build upon their oral communication skills.With this instructional strategy, intermediate literacy learners learn through reflection and verbalization of the text. Gunter, M. A., Estes, T. H., & Schwab, J. H. (1999). Instruction: A Models Approach, 3rd edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Comprehension strategies and instructional strategies are the most effective to support transitional, intermediate, and advanced literacy learners

Both the comprehension and instructional strategies are effective to support transitional, intermediate, and advanced literacy learners because they align with my states SOL standards. They also provide engaging activities to promote further learning and better understanding of various genres of text. These strategies also allow the literacy learners to use metacognition practices while reading, whether it is an independent or collaborative reading activity.

Cognitive and affective aspects inform comprehensionCognitive Aspects

Phonics Decoding Strategies and SkillsVocabulary

Affective Aspects


ReadWriteThink Lesson Exploring Friendship with Bridge to Terabithia

This lesson is designed for students in 4th-6th grade. With this lesson, the students will make predictions about the book and the characters; they will complete character studies as they read about the main characters friendship; and they will relate the lesson to personal experiences of making and keeping friends.

ReadWriteThink Lesson

Comprehension Strategy

The comprehension strategy used in the lesson was metacognition. With the metacognition the students were responsible for their own reading as they were assigned specific chapters for homework. The students used metacognition to make predictions of what would happen in the text.

Instructional Strategy

The instructional strategy the teacher used in the lesson was Character Trading Cards. The teacher introduced this technology to the literacy learners to allow the students to create trading cards for the characters to assure that the students were able to identify similarities and differences between the main characters.

Comprehension strategies vs. Instructional strategies

Comprehension strategies are those strategies used by the students to assist them in reading and understanding various types of genres and texts, both print and digital.

Instructional strategies are used by the teacher in order to meet the specific learning needs of their students in comprehension and analyzing texts.

Both strategies are utilized in the classroom to make sure all the students learn the skills to become successful literacy learners

ReferencesAdler, C.R. (Ed). 2001. Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read, pp. 49-54. National Institute for Literacy. Retrieved Nov. 1, 2007, from, P., Cho, B.-Y., Kim, J.-Y., Crassas, M. E., & Doyle, B. (2013). Reading: What else matters besides strategies and skills? The Reading Teacher, 66(6), 440448.

Chick, Nancy, Karis, Terri, and Kernahan, Cyndi. (2009). Learning from their own learning: how metacognitive and meta-affective reflections enhance learning in race-related courses. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 3(1). 1-28.

ReferencesGunter, M. A., Estes, T. H., & Schwab, J. H. (1999). Instruction: A Models Approach, 3rd edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.International Literacy Association (ILA) and National Council of Teachers of English. (2014a). ReadWriteThink. Retrieved from, D. R., & Cooter, R. B., Jr. (2016). Strategies for reading assessment and instruction in an era of common core standards: Helping every child succeed (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.