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Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies by B. J. Zagorac, M.A., M.Ed.

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This presentation has excellent information for teachers about how to actively teach and model comprehension strategies for students.


Page 1: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

Teaching Reading


Strategiesby B. J. Zagorac, M.A., M.Ed.

Page 2: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

Workshop Outline

• Anticipation Guide

• Introductions & Workshop Goals

• Presentation on Teaching Comprehension Strategies

• Discussion– Teacher Application of Strategies

• Concluding Remarks & Review Anticipation Guide

• End-of-Workshop Survey

Page 3: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

Anticipation Guide• Please take a minute or so to fill out

the Anticipation Guide. We will review

your responses together at the end of

the workshop to see how your

thinking has changed.

Page 4: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

Major Goals of Workshop• Learn and apply the 3 different types of

knowledge needed to teach reading

comprehension strategies.

• Learn specific information about 2 reading

strategies from Ellen Oliver Keene’s 7

Essential Reading Strategies.

• Learn and apply present research on teaching

reading comprehension strategies to the

classroom setting.

Page 5: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

The Need for Strategy Instruction

• Comprehension is at the heart of the entire

reading process.

• Many children are unaware of how to use

strategies and apply them consistently during


• NAEP Data indicates that about 1/3 of fourth

graders read below even the basic level,

which is defined as the ability to read and

understand directions on homework( National Center for Education Statistics, 2012)

Page 6: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

The 7 Key Comprehension Strategies

• Keene (2010) and McLaughlin (2012)

recommend teaching these key strategies:

– Monitoring for meaning

– Using schema (background


– Making inferences

– Asking questions

– Creating images in the mind

– Determining importance

– Synthesizing information

Page 7: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

2 Strategies of Focus• Asking Questions

– Good readers continuously ask themselves

questions about what they are reading.

– Self-questioning sets a focus for certain concepts

within the text and can even help readers monitor

their understanding.

• Creating Mental Images

- Good readers create pictures in their minds based

on what their reading.

- Images could include sense of sight, smell, taste,

touch, and sound.

Page 8: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

The 3 Types of Knowledge• To effectively use a reading strategy, the reader

must possess 3 distinct forms of knowledge

(Almasi & Fullerton, 2012):1. Declarative Knowledge: Reader knows of the strategy

and is able to describe it in the context of the reading


2. Procedural Knowledge: Reader knows how to perform

or use the reading strategy. This might involve certain

steps for using the strategy.

3. Conditional Knowledge: Reader knows when and why

to use the strategy.

• This type of knowledge is very important as this is when

the reader knows the strategy would be useful.

• Teacher modeling should be extensive in this area.

Page 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

Strategies in Action

• Example from story book (Demonstration)

– I love You the Purplest by Barbara Joosse

• Creating Mental Images - use of sensory images to

create a picture in the reader’s mind (pp. 3-4)

• Asking Questions – using information in story to help

the reader formulate a good question (pp. 13-14)

• Each reading strategy will be demonstrated with the

types of knowledge a reader must have: declarative,

procedural, and conditional.

Important Note: Students may not be able to apply reading

strategies independently after only modeling for them a few

times. Multiple lessons modeling strategies are necessary

with most younger students. A gradual release of

responsibility model is appropriate.

Page 10: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

Think & Share• Everyone will receive a children’s book with a

specific place marked with a recommended

reading strategy to use.

• Think about how you would teach that strategy to

your students using the 3 types of knowledge we


• Feel free to jot down some notes for each type of


• Share your responses with the colleagues at your


Page 11: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

Final Thoughts• Review Anticipation Guide

– How has your thinking changed today?

– What new information will you take back to

your classroom?

• Questions from you?

• End-of-Workshop Survey

• Be sure to pick up the following items

before you leave:

Reading Comp Info Sheet

Recommended Resources Sheet

Page 12: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

Thank You for


Page 13: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies

References• Almasi, J. F., & Fullerton, S. K. (2012). Teaching

strategic processes in reading. New York, NY: The

Guilford Press.

• Keene, E. O. (2010). New horizons in comprehension.

Educational Leadership, 67(6), 69-73.

• McLaughlin, M. (2012). Reading comprehension: What

every teacher needs to know. The Reading Teacher, 65, 432-440. doi: 10.1002/TRTR.01064

• Miller, D. (2013). Reading with meaning: Teaching comprehension in the primary grades. Portland, ME:

Stenhouse Publishers.

• National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). NAEP Date Explorer. Retrieved at