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B e n c h m a r k e d u c a t i o n c o m p a n y Themes • Biology • Medical Sciences • Human Body Science Cells Level V/60 Skills & Strategies Anchor Comprehension Strategies • Summarize Information • Draw Conclusions Comprehension • Ask questions • Identify cause and effect • Use graphic features to interpret information Vocabulary/Word Study Strategy • Use knowledge of word structures to determine word meaning Science Big Idea • All living things are made of cells. TEACHER’S GUIDE

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  • B e n c h m a r k e d u c a t i o n c o m p a n y

    Themes• Biology• Medical Sciences• Human Body

    Science

    CellsLevel V/60

    Skills & Strategies

    Anchor Comprehension Strategies

    • Summarize Information• Draw Conclusions

    Comprehension • Askquestions

    • Identifycauseandeffect

    • Usegraphicfeaturestointerpretinformation

    Vocabulary/Word Study Strategy • Useknowledgeofwordstructuresto

    determinewordmeaning

    Science Big Idea • Alllivingthingsaremadeofcells.

    TeACher’S Guide

  • Page 11: After Reading• Administer Posttest• Synthesize Information: Identify Cause and Effect

    D a y

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    A c t i v i t i e s

    A dd i t i o n a l R e l a t e d R e s o u r c e s

    Notable Trade Books for Read-Aloud• Day, Nancy. Killer Superbugs: The Story

    of Drug-Resistant Diseases. Enslow Publishers, 2001.

    • Monroe, Judy. Influenza and Other Viruses. Capstone Press, 2001.

    • Romanek, Trudee. Achoo! The Most Interesting Book You’ll Ever Read About Germs. Kids Can Press, 2003.

    • Snedden, Robert. Cell Division and Genetics. Heinemann Library, 2002.

    Web Site for Content Information• CELLS alive!

    http://www.cellsalive.com/CELLS alive! contains a wealth of information about cells for students and teachers from grades 6–12. It includes interactive cell diagrams, 3-D models, and the “Cell Cam.” In addition, it provides general informational links containing suggestions and tips for homework projects, and quizzes on topics covered in the site.

    C o r e L e s s o n P l a n n i n g G u i d e

    © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC. All rights reserved. Teachers may photocopy the reproducible pages for classroom use. No other part of the guide may be reproduced or transmitted in whole or in part in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

    ISBN: 978-1-4108-2584-12

    Lesson at a GlanceBefore Reading (page 3)

    • Build Background• Introduce the Book• Administer Preassessment

    During Reading (pages 4–10)

    Introduction–Chapter 1 (pages 4–6)• Model Metacognitive Strategy:

    Ask Questions• Set a Purpose for Reading• Discuss the Reading• Model Comprehension Strategy: Draw

    Conclusions• Use Knowledge of Word Structures to

    Determine Word Meaning: Base Words

    Chapter 2 (pages 7–8)• Apply Metacognitive Strategy:

    Ask Questions• Set a Purpose for Reading• Discuss the Reading• Guide Comprehension Strategy:

    Draw Conclusions• Use Graphic Features to Interpret

    Information: Labeled Diagrams

    Chapter 3–Conclusion (pages 9–10)• Apply Metacognitive Strategy:

    Ask Questions• Set a Purpose for Reading• Discuss the Reading• Apply Comprehension Strategy:

    Draw Conclusions• Use Knowledge of Word Structures to

    Determine Word Meaning: Base Words

    After Reading (page 11)

    • Administer Posttest• Synthesize Information: Identify Cause

    and Effect

    Writing Workshop (pages 12–13)

    • Model the Writing Process: Write a Clues and Evidence Paragraph

    Blackline Masters (pages 14–16)

    • Draw Conclusions (page 14)• Use Knowledge of Word Structure: Base

    Words (page 15)• Conclusions (page 18)

    Page 3: Before Reading• Build Background• Introduce the Book• Administer Preassessment

    Pages 4–6: During Reading: Introduction–Chapter 1• Model Metacognitive Strategy: Ask Questions• Model Comprehension Strategy: Draw Conclusions• Use Knowledge of Word Structures to Determine Word Meaning:

    Base Words

    Pages 7–8: During Reading: Chapter 2• Apply Metacognitive Strategy: Ask Questions• Guide Comprehension Strategy: Draw Conclusions• Use Graphic Features to Interpret Information: Labeled Diagrams

    Pages 9–10: During Reading: Chapter 3–Conclusion• Apply Metacognitive Strategy: Ask Questions• Apply Comprehension Strategy: Draw Conclusions• Use Knowledge of Word Structures to Determine Word Meaning:

    Base Words

    The following five-day lesson plan is just one option for incorporating this teacher’s guide into your daily lesson plans.

  • Before ReadingBuild Background • Say: Look around you. What is the smallest living thing you can

    see? Can you think of things that are smaller? Even a mosquito or a seed has smaller parts that you can’t see. These parts are called cells. Every living thing is made up of cells. Think about how small cells are and what tools you can use to see them. For the next two minutes, write down everything you know about cells.

    • At the end of the two minutes, have students work in pairs and share what they wrote.

    • Display the graphic organizer shown on the right. Read the labels together with students. Ask: Did any of you write something that matches one of the topics on this web?

    • List students’ ideas in the appropriate places on the web.

    Introduce the Book • Give students a copy of the book. Have them read the title and

    locate the table of contents. Ask: How is this book organized? What is each chapter about?

    • Point out that Chapter 2 describes the main parts of cells. Have students preview Chapter 2, looking for the pictures that show cell parts.

    • Have pairs of students choose a chapter to skim. Tell each pair to choose one or two boldfaced words and one or two pictures to tell the group about.

    Administer Preassessment• Have students take Ongoing Assessment #11 on page 58 in the

    Comprehension Strategy Assessment Handbook (Grade 6).

    • Score assessments and use the results to determine instruction.

    • Keep group assessments in a small-group reading folder. For in-depth analysis, discuss responses with individual students.

    Informal Assessment Tips

    1. Assess students’ ability to locate chapters using the table of contents.

    2. Document informal observations in a folder or notebook.

    3. Keep the folder or notebook at the small-group reading table for handy reference.

    4. Tell struggling students that the chapter starts on the page number next to the chapter’s title in the table of contents. Explain that the boldfaced words in the chapter are also in the glossary.

    © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC Cells3

    bacteria microscope

    animal plant

    Cells

  • During Reading: Introduction–Chapter 1Model Metacognitive Strategy: Ask Questions

    • Say: Good readers ask questions all the time. They ask questions about unfamiliar words; questions about how, why, what, when, and where; and questions about what will happen next.

    • Use a real-life example of asking questions. Say: When I come across an unfamiliar word, I stop and ask myself what the word means. Sometimes unfamiliar words are boldfaced, in dark print. Sometimes the author defines the word, but other times I have to figure out the meaning on my own.

    • Say: Yesterday we previewed the book Cells. Today we are going to ask questions about unknown words in Chapter 1.

    • Read page 4 aloud (including the caption) while students follow along. Ask yourself questions about vocabulary as you read. Write the questions on self-stick notes and place them in the book where the question first came up. Some ideas for questions follow. What does represents mean? (to show in a picture, to describe) What are compartments? (separate divisions or sections)

    • Read pages 5–6 aloud while students follow along. Say: When I see a boldfaced word in this book, I know I can look up its definition in the glossary in the back. Otherwise, if I can’t define a word from context clues, I can use a dictionary.

    • Ask: On page 6, what does concluded mean? (to come to a decision)

    Set a Purpose for Reading • Ask students to read pages 7–9. Have them write questions

    about unknown words on self-stick notes or in their journals. When they define the words, have them write the words and definitions in their journals. If necessary, have students use dictionaries to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words.

    4Cells © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Good readers ask questions before, during, and after reading. Asking questions keeps readers engaged with the text and enhances their understanding of what they read. Readers ask questions about what unknown words mean, why something happened, how it happened, and what might happen next. Good readers keep track of their questions by writing them in a journal or on self-stick notes.

    Content InformationStudents might be interested in the following facts about cells:

    • Everyone starts life as a single cell. The more you grow, the more cells you have.

    • Most body cells can divide into two identical cells. These new cells can then divide over and over again. Cell division can create huge numbers of new cells quickly. Cells divide as your body grows and anywhere damaged or worn-out cells need to be replaced.

    • Water moves in and out of cells. A plant wilts when its cells lose water and shrink. A plant is strong when its cells are swollen with water.

    Minds-On/ Hands-On Activity

    1. Provide metric rulers, white paper, and scissors.

    2. Have students draw a 1 centimeter square. Ask them to mark 150 dots in the square and cut the square out of the paper.

    3. Have students place the square on one hand to conceptualize how tiny cells are. Tell them that there are 150,000 skin cells beneath each square. Have students write the number 150,000. Ask them how many cells each dot on each square represents (1,000). Encourage them to visualize the large number of skin cells beneath their 1 centimeter squares.

  • Discuss the Reading • Ask students to share their questions and what they learned

    from reading Chapter 1. Have them discuss the definitions of the unknown words in the reading. Ask: How did you determine the meaning of unfamiliar words today? Did you use the words around the unfamiliar word? Did you use the dictionary or glossary?

    • Point out that they might find unfamiliar words in every chapter.

    • Tell students to continue practicing this strategy as they continue to read the book. Remind them to write their questions on self-stick notes or in their journals.

    Model Comprehension Strategy: Draw Conclusions• Remind students that authors often provide information without

    directly stating the information. Explain that good readers can “read between the lines,” using what they know and what they read to draw conclusions.

    • Say: In this book, the author provides many facts about cells. It is your job to put these facts together and use them to read beyond what’s stated. This is called drawing conclusions. Conclusions are not stated in the text. The reader has to figure them out. Conclusions are drawn after reading. However, you do not have to finish the whole chapter or book to draw a conclusion. You do have to read more than a few sentences because several clues or pieces of evidence are needed to prove a conclusion.

    • Hand out the graphic organizer “Draw Conclusions” (blackline master, page 14 of this guide). You may want to make a chart-size copy of it or use a transparency.

    • Tell students that as they read, they will complete the first three rows together and the last two rows independently.

    • Say: I am going to read the Introduction. Then I will write a conclusion based on what I read. In the last column of the organizer, I will write the clues or evidence I used to draw my conclusion. Remember, conclusions are not stated in the text, but they are always based on the clues and evidence found in the text and on what I know.

    • Have students read along as you read the Introduction. Discuss and write the conclusion using the following think-aloud. Say: The Introduction is about the functions of many different kinds of cells in animals, humans, plants, and other things. Then discuss and write the facts that support the conclusion. Possible answers are located on the graphic organizer shown on this page.

    Informal Assessment Tips1. Watch students as they write

    questions on self-stick notes or in their journals.

    2. In a folder or notebook, jot down what you observe.

    3. Students should be asking questions as they read, especially about unknown words. Document students who are and are not using this metacognitive strategy.

    4. Remind students that asking questions about unknown words will help them understand the material.

    © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC Cells5

    What Conclusions Can You Draw About . . . Clues/Evidence

    Draw Conclusions

    Chapter

    Introduction

    Chapter 1

    Chapter 2

    Chapter 3

    Chapter 4

    understanding what cells are? Cells are living matter that perform different kinds of life functions.

    All living things are made of cells. There are brain cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, and others. Each type of human cell has a different purpose. There are good cells, bad cells, and cell invaders.

  • Introduction–Chapter 1

    6Cells © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    • Say: The Introduction gave us several clues to support my conclusion. The ideas I put on the Clues/Evidence side led me to believe that my conclusion was correct. I’m not going to include any information that I already know about my conclusion because the book provides enough support.

    • Have students look at the book and follow along while you show them how to draw conclusions in Chapter 1. Use the completed graphic organizer on this page to explain the clues and evidence.

    • Say: There may be more than one conclusion in a chapter. What conclusion can be drawn about the microscope? Let’s use the time line on pages 8–9 to answer that question. (Because of the advancements in microscope technology, we know a lot more about cells than we did 100 years ago.)

    • Tell students they will work on drawing conclusions again the next time you meet.

    Use Knowledge of Word Structures to Determine Word Meaning: Base Words• Have students find the word discoveries on page 5. Tell them

    that the base word in discoveries is discover. A base word is the foundation of a longer word. Various word parts are added to a base word to change its meaning. Explain that identifying a base word can help them figure out the meaning of a new word. Say: I know the verb discover. It means “to learn about or notice for the first time.” When you add the letter y to the end, the verb discover becomes the noun discovery, which means “something that is learned about or noticed for the first time. ”I know that the ending –ies makes a noun plural. So discoveries must mean “more than one thing that is learned about or noticed for the first time.” Tell students that if they do not know the unfamiliar word, they can look up the base word in a dictionary. They can also look up the meanings of the word parts.

    • Explain that some word parts, when added to a base word, stand for a person who does something. Have students repeat the exercise with the word botanist on page 6. Tell them that botany means “the study of plants” and that –ist replaces the letter y to make a word that identifies a person. In this case, it’s “a person who studies plants.”

    • Tell students that they will practice this strategy again later in their reading.

    What Conclusions Can You Draw About . . . Clues/Evidence

    Draw Conclusions

    Chapter

    Introduction

    Chapter 1

    Chapter 2

    Chapter 3

    Chapter 4

    understanding what cells are? Cells are living matter perform different kinds of life functions.

    scientists who study cells? Scientists have been interested in cells for hundreds of years. why microscopes are important? Because of the advancements in microscope technology, we know a lot more about cells than we did even 100 years ago.

    All living things are made of cells. There are brain cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, and others. Each type of human cell has a different purpose. There are good cells, bad cells, and cell invaders.

    Hooke discovered cells in 1665. Leeuwenhoekfirst saw single-celled organisms in the 1670s. Schleiden studied plant cells in 1838. Virchow discovered all diseases were diseases of the cell in 1858. The first microscope was a tube with a lens at each end. One kind of electron microscope can create an image 100 million times as large as the sample.

  • Chapter 2

    Apply Metacognitive Strategy: Ask Questions• Remind students that asking questions is what good readers do

    to understand what they have read. Students have seen how asking questions can help them deal with unfamiliar words.

    • Say: Today we are going to ask questions that ask how, why, what, when, and where. Read pages 12–13 aloud while students follow along. Pose questions as you read. Write each question on a self-stick note and place it in the book where the question occurred. Some ideas for questions follow.

    Where does waste from a cell go? (Waste goes outside the cell. It leaves the cell through the membrane.)

    What do organelles do with substances brought into the cell? (Some digest substances. Others help break down harmful substances.)

    • Tell students that their questions are often answered in the book they are reading, but sometimes they are not. Ask: Where could you go to find answers that are not provided by the author? (to other reference materials, teachers, other students, experts, or the Internet)

    Set a Purpose for Reading • Have students finish reading Chapter 2 to learn more about how

    cells work. Ask them to write two or three how, why, what, when, or where questions about the chapter as they read.

    Discuss the Reading • Ask students to share their questions and tell whether the author

    answered them. Discuss other resources that students might use to find the answers that were not provided by the text.

    • Ask students to draw a conclusion about why plants and animals have different kinds of cells. Encourage students to support each conclusion with evidence. (Possible answer: Plants and animals have different cells because they perform different kinds of life functions. Animal cells have structures to make up proteins for skin, muscle, and nerve cells. Plant cells contain structures that effect photosynthesis, by which green plants make their own food.)

    © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC Cells7

    Content InformationHere is some more information about how cells function:

    • Cells, like all living organisms, constantly receive signals from the environment. Cells interpret signals such as sound, light, heat, and touch to decide how to respond.

    • Plants need leaves for photosynthesis. Many plants (including trees) are actively completing photosynthesis when their leaves are green. In fall, the leaves no longer receive water and nutrients. Without these, the chlorophyll in the leaves begins to break down. Other leaf colors, such as red, orange, and yellow, appear.

    Minds-On/ Hands-On Activity

    1. Divide students into groups.

    2. To each group, provide poster board, glue, scissors, markers, and small items such as chalk, paper clips, rubber bands, and bits of clay.

    3. Ask students to study the cell diagrams on pages 13 and 17 of the book. Then tell them that each group will be creating their own “cell.”

    4. Tell students to outline their cells on the poster board and then glue on the cell parts made from the small items. Have them label each part of their cell.

    5. Have each group of students share their cell with the class and ask classmates to tell what type of cell (animal or plant) it is.

  • Chapter 2

    Informal Assessment Tips1. Watch students as they work on

    the “Draw Conclusions” chart.

    2. In your folder, jot down what you see the students doing.

    3. Ask yourself: Are students having problems with this strategy? If so, what are the problems? Are students mastering this strategy? If so, how do I know?

    Guide Comprehension Strategy: Draw Conclusions• Remind students that when they draw conclusions they use what

    they know and what they read to formulate ideas that are not directly stated in the text. You may want to review the first two rows of the graphic organizer.

    • Have students reread Chapter 2 silently. Ask them to think about what the author does not say, but implies. When students finish reading, ask: What conclusion can you draw about the components of a cell? (Possible answer: They all depend on each other.) That is a good conclusion. Let’s prove it. Use the information from the graphic organizer on this page to prove the conclusion.

    • Repeat the exercise with this question: What conclusion can you draw about the role DNA plays in making different types of cells? (Possible answer: DNA provides the building blocks for making different cells.)

    Use Graphic Features to Interpret Information: Labeled Diagrams • Refer to the labeled diagram on page 13. Explain that diagrams

    of this kind give a lot of information in a quick, visual form.

    • Ask students to tell what the diagram shows. (the structure or parts of a human cell) Have a volunteer name the four parts shown. (organelles, nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane) Ask: Does this diagram label everything shown in the cell? (no) What is not labeled? (some of the organelles) Tell students that diagrams provide information simply and clearly. Explain that in this diagram, it is not necessary to label more than two examples of organelles because the examples make it easy to identify the others.

    • Tell students that they should look for other diagrams as they read. Diagrams are not always vital to understanding the text, but they often give supporting details about main ideas and help readers visualize information.

    8Cells © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    What Conclusions Can You Draw About . . .

    Clues/Evidence

    Draw Conclusions

    Chapter

    Introduction

    Chapter 1

    Chapter 2

    Chapter 3

    Chapter 4

    understanding what cells are? Cells are living matter perform different kinds of life functions.

    scientists who study cells? Scientists have been interested in cells for hundreds of years. why microscopes are important? Because of the advancements in microscope technology, we know a lot more about cells than we did even 100 years ago.

    a cell’s components? They all depend on each other.the role of DNA? DNA provides the building blocks for making different cells.

    All living things are made of cells. There are brain cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, and others. Each type of human cell has a different purpose. There are good cells, bad cells, and cell invaders.

    Hooke discovered cells in 1665. Leeuwenhoekfirst saw single-celled organisms in the 1670s. Schleiden studied plant cells in 1838. Virchow discovered all diseases were diseases of the cell in 1858. The first microscope was a tube with a lens at each end. One kind of electron microscope can create an image 100 million times as large as the sample.

    The cell membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell; cytoplasm supports other cell parts and allows important nutrients to move through the cell; organelles digest or break down substances; and the nucleus directs all activities in the cell.Genes have the instructions for different cells. DNA contains all the information that a cell needs to create new cells. The chemicals in the rungs are arranged in different orders.

  • © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC Cells9

    Chapter 3–Conclusion

    Apply Metacognitive Strategy: Ask Questions• Remind students that they have practiced asking questions about

    boldfaced words and questions that ask how, why, what, when, and where. Have them review the questions they have already asked and written on self-stick notes or in their journals.

    • Say: Today we are going to ask questions about what happens next. These types of questions are called predictions.

    • Read pages 23–29 aloud (including the captions) while students follow along. Pose questions as you read the text. Some ideas for questions follow.

    What might happen to living things and the environment if there was a large oil spill along a U.S. Gulf Coast?

    How can scientists use what they know about protists and viruses to keep people healthy in the future?

    What might happen to you if you share popcorn at the movies with someone who has a virus?

    • Ask students to name the three kinds of questions they will ask themselves as they read the next chapters. (questions about unfamiliar words; questions that ask how, why, what, when, and where; and questions about what might happen next)

    Set a Purpose for Reading • Have students read Chapters 3–4 and the Conclusion silently. As they

    read, encourage them to ask questions about what happens next. Have them write their questions on self-stick notes or in their journals.

    Discuss the Reading • Have students share the questions they asked during their reading.

    • Ask: How can you find answers to your questions about what happens next? Is there enough information in the book to help you make a good guess?

    Content InformationYou may want to share the following information about French scientist Louis Pasteur:

    • By developing methods of sterilization, or removing bacteria and other microorganisms from a body, Pasteur helped prevent the spread of disease in hospitals.

    • Pasteur was the first to use vaccination to fight viruses, and he developed a pioneering vaccine for rabies. Rabies is a viral disease of the nervous system of mammals. Animals with rabies show signs of increased salivation and other abnormal behavior. This virus leads to death.

    • Pasteur’s “germ theory of disease”—the realization that germs cause most infectious diseases—is considered one of medicine’s most important discoveries.

    Minds-On/ Hands-On Activity

    1. Have students play the roles of doctors and patients in an emergency room.

    2. Have the “patients” describe various symptoms such as nausea, high fever, and chills.

    3. Have the “doctors” diagnose what is wrong. Encourage them to ask questions about where the patients have traveled or lived before. The “doctors” should also ask questions about what the “patients” have eaten recently and with whom they have recently come into contact.

    4. Have students discuss the illnesses. Ask them which illnesses might have been prevented and how they might have been prevented.

  • Chapter 3–Conclusion

    Apply Comprehension Strategy: Draw Conclusions• Review the graphic organizer with students. Explain that you

    want them to complete the final rows now that they have finished the book. Ask if they have any questions before they begin.

    • Remind students that they should use what they know as well as what they read to support sensible conclusions. Monitor their work and intervene if they are having difficulty.

    • Discuss student responses together.

    • Have students complete the blackline master “Conclusions” on page 18.

    Use Knowledge of Word Structures to Determine Word Meaning: Base Words• Remind students about the base words lesson from Chapter 1.

    • Have students find the word infection on page 20. Ask them to name the base word in infection. (infect) Ask: What part of speech is this word? Is it a noun, verb, or adjective? (verb). What do you think infect means? (to contaminate, or make unclean or impure) How does the word part -ion change the word? What part of speech is it now? (The ending makes the word a noun.) What do you think infection means? (having a germ or virus in your body) Have students use a dictionary to check the meaning.

    • Repeat the exercise with the word refrigerated on page 21.

    • For more practice, have students complete the blackline master “Use Knowledge of Word Structure: Base Words” on page 15 of this guide. Students may do this during small-group reading or at their desks.

    10Cells © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Informal Assessment Tips 1. Watch students as they identify

    cause-and-effect relationships. Ask yourself: How have the students progressed with identifying causes and effects? What problems are they still having? What questions do I have about what I see them doing?

    2. Watch students as they complete the graphic organizer independently. Ask yourself: Who is still struggling with this strategy? What are they doing or not doing that makes me think they are struggling? How can I help them?

    3. Jot down your thoughts in your folder or notebook.

    What Conclusions Can You Draw About . . .

    Clues/Evidence

    Draw Conclusions

    Chapter

    Introduction

    Chapter 1

    Chapter 2

    Chapter 3

    Chapter 4

    understanding what cells are? Cells are living matter perform different kinds of life functions.

    scientists who study cells? Scientists have been interested in cells for hundreds of years. why microscopes are important? Because of the advancements in microscope technology, we know a lot more about cells than we did even 100 years ago.

    a cell’s components? They all depend on each other.the role of DNA? DNA provides the building blocks for making different cells.

    the role of good bacteria? We probably could not stay healthy without good bacteria.

    the importance of knowing about viruses? Knowing about viruses helps us to take better care of ourselves.

    All living things are made of cells. There are brain cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, and others. Each type of human cell has a different purpose. There are good cells, bad cells, and cell invaders.

    Hooke discovered cells in 1665. Leeuwenhoekfirst saw single-celled organisms in the 1670s. Schleiden studied plant cells in 1838. Virchow discovered all diseases were diseases of the cell in 1858. The first microscope was a tube with a lens at each end. One kind of electron microscope can create an image 100 million times as large as the sample.

    The cell membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell; cytoplasm supports other cell parts and allows important nutrients to move through the cell; organelles digest or break down substances; and the nucleus directs all activities in the cell.Genes have the instructions for different cells. DNA contains all the information that a cell needs to create new cells. The chemicals in the rungs are arranged in different orders.

    Bacteria help us digest food. They make vitamins that the body can’t make on its own.

    We know about many viruses and the diseases they cause. We know poor health weakens cells, making us more vulnerable. Measures such as eating right, washing our hands, and exercising protect us.

    1. accidental: ________________________________________________

    ___________________________________________________________

    2. opportunities: _____________________________________________

    3. easier: ____________________________________________________

    accident—an unplanned event or circumstance of or

    relating to an accident or unplanned manner or way

    opportunity—chance, more than one chance

    easy—not difficult, less difficult

    1.What can you conclude about bottled water? _____________________________________________________________________ 2.What probably happens to bacteria as a result? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________3.Why do you think you can see the bacteria in the vase of flowers? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________4.What can you conclude about these bacteria? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________5. Why were fermented foods important to early people? _____________________________________________________________________

    Bottled water does not contain a large number of bacteria.

    They change their membranes again and keep getting stronger and more resistant.

    There are huge numbers of them. You can see bacteria when they occur in big clumps.

    The bacteria cannot grow well in warm conditions, and mammals are warm-blooded animals.

    They did not have refrigerators or freezers.

  • After ReadingAdminister Posttest• Have students take Ongoing Assessment #12 on page 60 in the

    Comprehension Strategy Assessment Handbook (Grade 6).

    Synthesize Information: Identify Cause and Effect • Review cause-and-effect relationships. Say: Science books often

    contain information about what happens in our world and why it happens. This is an example of a cause-and-effect relationship. Experiments are full of cause-and-effect relationships.

    • Have students identify cause-and-effect relationships involving three scientists in this book. Have students use the chart below to show the relationships.

    • Model how to identify cause and effect. Have students read the last paragraph on page 4. Ask: What important discovery did Robert Hooke make? (He discovered tiny compartments, or cells.) What caused this event to occur? (He looked at the bark of a cork tree with his microscope.)

    • Write the cause and effect in the chart. Then have pairs of students complete the chart with two more examples.

    • Have students share and compare their charts. Check for accurate cause-and-effect relationships.

    © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC Cells11

    Informal Assessment Tips

    1. Score assessments and determine if more instruction is needed for this strategy

    2. Keep group assessments in a small-group reading folder.

    3. Look closely at students’ responses. Ask yourself: Why has this student answered the question in this manner? For in-depth analysis, discuss responses with individual students.

    4. Use posttests to document growth over time, for parent/teacher conferences, or for your own records.

    Scientist Cause Effect

    Cause and Effect

    Robert Hooke

    He was looking at bark under a microscope.

    He discovered tiny compartments which looked like rooms or cells to him, so he called them cells.

  • Model the Writing Process: Write a Clues and Evidence Paragraph• Remind students that throughout the book students learned

    what cells are and what they do, and they used what they learned to draw conclusions.

    • Explain that a group of students conducted an experiment to see how washing one’s hands affects the number of bacteria on them.

    • On chart paper or the board, display the results of the experiment shown in the graph below.

    • Use the writing model to show how to write a paragraph that uses clues and evidence from the graph to support a conclusion.

    • Tell students that they will write paragraphs similar to the model.

    • Have students look through textbooks or magazines for a graph showing data about a familiar topic.

    • First they should rewrite the data as sentences in their paragraph.

    • Then students should use the facts in their sentences to draw conclusions and complete their paragraphs.

    Informal Assessment Tips

    1. Observe students as they participate in the group writing project. Identify those who might need additional assistance during the writing process. Jot down notes in your journal.

    2. During conferences, keep notes on each student’s writing behaviors. Ask yourself: What evidence do I have to support the conclusion that this student is writing well or poorly? What can I do about it?

    3. Have struggling students write the facts in sentences and then ask themselves questions to draw sensible conclusions: What do I know based on these facts? How are the facts related? What additional ideas can I add now that I know these facts?

    12Cells © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Writing Workshop

    Teaching Tips: Process Writing Steps

    1. Have students write first drafts of paragraphs that include clues, evidence, and conclusions.

    2. After students complete their paragraphs, have them revise and edit with the help of a classmate.

    3. Conference with each student following the first revision and editing.

    4. Have students make any additional changes and create final copies of their paragraphs.

    5. Finally, invite students to share their paragraphs with other students.

    Results of Four Trials in Hand-Washing Experiment

    CW/10 CW/20 WWS/10 WWS/20

    Type of Hand Washing

    CW/10=cold water, rubbing for 10 seconds

    CW/20=cold water, rubbing for 20 seconds

    WWS/10=warm water, soap, rubbing for 10 seconds

    WWS/20=warm water, soap, rubbing for 20 seconds

    AmountofBacteria

    100%

    80%

    60%

    40%

    20%

    0

  • © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Hand-Washing ExperimentIn this experiment, students wanted to find out

    what effect different methods of hand-washing

    would have on bacteria. First, they rubbed cooking

    oil all over their hands. Then they sprinkled

    cinnamon “bacteria” on their hands. Next, they

    used different methods to wash their hands. The

    first two students washed their hands in cold water

    for 10 and 20 seconds. The students were able to

    wash only 20 percent and 40 percent of the

    “bacteria” off their hands. The third and fourth

    students washed their hands using warm water and

    soap for 10 and 20 seconds. It took at least 20

    seconds of rubbing vigorously to remove all of the

    “bacteria.” From these results, we can conclude

    that to remove bacteria and reduce the chance of

    infection, one must use warm water and soap and

    wash for at least 20 seconds.

    Writing Model

  • © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Name ________________________________________ Date __________________

    What Conclusions Can You Draw About . . .

    Clues/Evidence

    Draw Conclusions

    Chapter

    Introduction

    Chapter 1

    Chapter 2

    Chapter 3

    Chapter 4

  • © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Name ________________________________________ Date __________________

    Use Knowledge of Word Structure: Base Words

    Directions: Read the passage. Complete the exercise at the bottom of the page.

    Why Is the Common Cold So Common? Do you sometimes wonder if you get more colds than the average person? Is getting a cold an accidental event, or can you prevent it? Most kids get between six and ten colds a year, depending on their age. That adds up to a lot of sniffles. Adults get an average of two to three colds a year. Why do colds strike so often? For one thing, there are more than 200 different types of cold viruses, which means a lot of opportunities for infection. The most important type of cold virus, the rhinovirus, causes at least one-third of all colds. Fortunately, these types of colds are usually pretty mild. Scientists are still unsure what viruses are responsible for about 30 to 50 percent of adult colds. Although most colds happen in cold weather, researchers say cold temperatures do not cause colds. However, cold weather makes people spend more time indoors, where it is easier to spread viruses from person to person.

    For each boldfaced word in the passage, write the base word and the base word’s definition. Then write the definition of the word from the passage. Use a dictionary to check your work.

    1. accidental _________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________

    2. opportunities ______________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________

    3. easier ____________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________

  • Skills Bank

    16 ©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLCCells

    BuildComprehensionSummArizeinformAtion

    Explain • Create an overhead transparency of the graphic organizer “Cells” or draw it on the board. Say: A nonfiction book contains a great deal of information. We look for the most important ideas in the book. Then we summarize the ideas. To summarize, we put the ideas together into a few sentences that tell about the information in the book.

    Model • Say: Let’s figure out the important ideas in Cells. In the first chapter we read about the discovery of cells. We find out about these ideas: (1) Using microscopes, scientists discovered cells, algae, and bacteria in the 1600s. (2) As microscopes improved, scientists made more discoveries about cells in plants and animals and about diseases and cells. These are the important ideas from Chapter 1. Record the ideas in the Important Ideas column of the graphic organizer.

    Guide • Say: Now let’s read pages 12 to 16. What do we read about cells and their parts? What are the important ideas on these pages? (Allow time for students to respond, assisting if needed.) Yes, we read that no matter how different they are, all cells have the same main parts: cell membrane, cytoplasm, and a nucleus. We also read that the DNA in cells contains all the information cells need to make new cells. Record these ideas in the Important Ideas column. Say: Let’s look at pages 17 to 19. What important ideas about plant and animal cells do we find here? (Again allow time for students to respond.) Yes, we read that unlike animal cells, plant cells have cell walls and can make their own food through photosynthesis. Record these ideas in the Important Ideas column. Say: These are the important ideas from Chapter 2.

    Apply • Ask pairs of students to work together to find the important ideas from Chapters 3 and 4. If more support is needed, utilize all or part of the “Guide” process to find important ideas about cells. Then work as a group to compose a few sentences that summarize the information in the book such as Microscopes enabled scientists to discover cells and their importance to all living things. All cells have the same main parts as well as DNA that determines the kind of cell. Single-celled bacteria and protists can be harmful or helpful to humans. Viruses invade cells and cause diseases. Finally, invite volunteers to read the completed graphic organizer aloud.

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    CellsSummarize Information

    Name ________________________________________ Date __________________

    Important Ideas Summary

  • Name ________________________________________ Date __________________

    © 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    ConclusionsDirections: Read each statement. Answer the question that follows by drawing conclusions.

    1.Nearly one-third of all bottled drinking water in the United States is contaminated with bacteria. It usually takes a large number of bacteria to make you sick. People don’t often get sick. What can you conclude about bottled water?

    _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

    2.Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics. They change their cell membranes so antibiotics cannot get though them. Scientists keep developing new antibiotics to fight bacteria. What probably happens to bacteria as a result?

    _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3.You cannot see individual bacteria without a microscope. When you put flowers in

    a vase of water, bacteria make the water look cloudy after a few days. Why do you think you can see the bacteria in the vase of flowers?

    _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

    4.Different types of bacteria grow best under different conditions. Bacteria that cause diseases in cold-blooded animals such as snakes and turtles cannot cause diseases in warm-blooded mammals. What can you conclude about these bacteria?

    _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

    5. Long ago, people began developing fermented foods. These foods contain bacteria that help preserve them and keep them from going bad, even without being refrigerated or frozen. Why were fermented foods important to early people?

    _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

  • Notes

    ©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

  • Notes

    ©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC