csi – comprehension strategies instruction
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DESCRIPTIONCSI – Comprehension Strategies Instruction. Help students learn and apply comprehension strategies, academic vocabulary, and fluency in the content areas. Comprehension is critically important to the development of children’s reading skills… Indeed, reading comprehension has come to be the - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
CSI Comprehension Strategies InstructionHelp students learn and apply comprehension strategies, academic vocabulary, and fluency in the content areas
Comprehension is critically important to the development of childrens reading skills Indeed, reading comprehension has come to be the essence of reading (Durkin, 1993)
Report of the National Reading Panel, 2000
What is CSI?CSI is a program of whole-group, cooperative, and independent learning materials developed to help students learn and apply comprehension strategies, vocabulary, and fluency in the content areas.
Lessons combine interactive texts or OHTs, cooperative activity books, journals, and audio texts.
Each program box is color-coded and numbered with a CSI level number. These numbers correspond to grade levels.
Included with each program, but packaged separately, are 30 student reflection journals.
PROGRAM COMPONENTSWhole-group activities Cooperative activities Independent activities
In each 3-5 kit, there are two file boxes
A whole-group box and a cooperative box
The 3-5 whole-group boxes contain
45 lesson plan folders with overhead transparencies and interactive digital texts (includes 5 introductory, 8 fiction, 8 nonfiction, 8 math, 8 science, and 8 social studies lessons comprehension strategy base)
1 Teachers guide2 Interactive CD-ROMs containing whole-group texts for the interactive whiteboard
The National Reading Panel summarized the scientific research and concluded:
explicit or formal instruction in the application of comprehension strategies has been shown to be highly effectiveReport of the National Reading Panel, 2000
The 3-5 cooperative boxes contain
15 copies of a student cooperative activity book featuring 40 texts across fiction, nonfiction, math, science, and social studies. Also included: marker pens and blank transparencies for responding to the text.1 reflection journal for students to record and reflect on their use of comprehension strategies (note: 30 of these are packaged separately)
2 audio CDs featuring fluent reading models of all cooperative texts
USING THE PROGRAM
Who should teach CSI?CSI is developed for use by any educator interested in improving comprehension and content area literacy.
The importance of content-area literacystudents of all ages, from elementary school to high school, have difficulty comprehending the structure of informational text
McGee, 1982; Meyer, Brandt, and Bluth, 1980; Taylor, 1980; in Block, Gambrell, and Pressley, 2002, p. 9
Scheduling Options and ManagementCSI is developed to be flexibleDetailed scheduling options can be found in the teachers guides
Whole-Group InstructionFrom a file box, you will need:The teachers guideLesson plan foldersThe interactive CD-RomYou also need an overhead transparency projector or a digital projector.
Select a Strategy LessonEach lesson supports the teacher to teach a particularcomprehension strategy using the text provided. In CSIthere are lesson plan folders for each of these strategies:
Why These Strategies?CSI is based on research evidence about the benefits of learning comprehension strategies. Harvey and Goudvis, and Zimmermann and Hutchins recommend these strategies.
Preparing the LessonRead the front of the lesson plan folder.
Preparing the LessonRead through the lesson on the inside cover of the folder.Teacher action promptTeacher speech promptStudent writing prompt
Prepare the text according to the note near thetop of the inside cover
You can show the text piece on an overhead projector or an interactive whiteboard:Note that if you only have a digital projector, you can project the text onto any surface and still use the interactive features via your computer and mouse
SequenceFollow the whole-group lesson with the student cooperative activity as shown the back of the lesson plan folder.
Cooperative LearningYou will need:
The teachers guide or interactive CD-ROM (to photocopy or print the graphic organizers)
15 cooperative activities books (to be given out to pairs or small groups of students)
The marker pens and transparencies (if using Grades 3-5 kits)
The audio CD for struggling readers or ELLs
The National Reading Panel found that repeated reading with audio support leads to marked improvements in student reading performance
Blum et al., cited in Report of the National Reading Panel, 2000
Preparing the Cooperative Student ActivityCarefully pair or group your students so that peer interaction is maximized
Photocopy (from the teachers guide) or print out (from the interactive CD-ROM) copies of the corresponding graphic organizer for each student.
Supporting the Cooperative Student ActivityGive each pair/group a cooperative activities book, and each student a copy of the graphic organizer.
Support them as they read, talk, and think their way through the activities in the margin beside the text.The writing activity using the graphic organizer is the final step of the cooperative student activity.
Independent ReflectionA student reflection journal is provided for independent use during the school year.These journals are for students to record and reflect on their use of comprehension strategies outside of the whole-group instruction and cooperative practice.These can be used in class or at home.
The student reflection journal contains:
Information on each comprehension strategy written in student-friendly languageTemplates for students to record using the strategies Information on using combinations of strategiesA strategy use graph
Using the Journal
USING THE INTERACTIVE CD-ROM
Select the content area, then choose a text within that area. We are going to open Shark.
The text will open into a viewer like this
Hypertext Glossary Definitions The bolded words in the text have interactive glossary definitions click on the bolded word and the glossary definition will appear in a text box. Click on the bolded word to see a word definition.
Picture Glossaries Click on the bolded word to see a word definition and a picture definitionWhere words lend themselves well to picture definitions, you will find picture glossaries.
Video Content Click on the green play button to start the video and click it again to stop.About a quarter of CSI digital texts contain embedded video. The video is included as extra support for students, particularly struggling readers.
The icons at the bottom of the screen allow teachers and students to interact with the text in different ways.
Mask Mode Move: While clicking and holding down on this icon, you can move the mask box around the screen.Zoom: You can make the mask box fill the screenMask Mode: While you have part of the text masked, clicking on mask mode will unmask the textYou can also change the size of the mask box using the arrows in each corner.
Some lesson plans have the teacher set up the interactive text showing only the title first.
Draw and Highlight Mode You can select different thicknesses and colors for your highlighter or pen
Virtual Sticky NoteModel how to annotate a text by selecting the Note function
Move: While clicking and holding down on this icon, you can move the sticky note around the screenEdit: This mode lets you type text into the sticky noteRotate: While clicking and holding down on this icon, you can rotate the sticky noteObject Menu: This menu allows you to delete the noteYou can also change the size of the sticky note using the arrows in each corner
Virtual Sticky NoteIf you are at the whiteboard, you can use the onscreen keyboard to type into your note
Delete Mode After clicking on delete mode, click onto an object or group to delete that object or group.
Clicking the Home button will take you back to the home menu.The home button
In short, they [middle years students] must be taught how to comprehend. (2004, p.1) Furthermore, children who are reading up to grade level in the primary grades do not automatically become proficient readers in later grades.
Biancarosa and Snow, cited in International Reading Association, 2006, p.1
To learn more about CSI and join our online community, visit:www.csi-literacy.com
The CSI resource is based on extensive research that suggest our students are not getting the literacy instruction they need in grades 3-8.
CSI is designed so that students learn and apply comprehension strategies, academic vocabulary, and fluency in the content areas.The CSI research base highlights four crucial research strands:1. The importance of engagement2. Explicit instruction - Scaffolding and modeling3. The importance of metacognition - interaction and reflection by students4. Formative assessment and application of comprehension strategies, vocabulary and fluency.CSI is a program of whole-group, cooperative, and independent learning materials developed to help students learn and apply comprehension strategies, vocabulary, and fluency in the content areas.
The CSI lessons combine interactive texts or overhead transparencies, cooperative activity books, journals, and audio texts.
CSI is available in six different levels spanning Grades 3 through 8 reading levels. Designed for all reading levels within the class, CSI includes scaffolding for struggling readers and English Language Learners by way of teacher read-aloud and audio texts. Each program box is numbered with the level which corresponds to a grade appropriate reading level.
For ongoing practice and application of the comprehension strategies taught in CSI, 30 journals per kit are included, but packaged separated. These are consumable items meant for each student to use to write in and to take home or from class to class.
Lets take a closer look at the whole-group instruction, the cooperative activities and the independent activitiesGrades 3-5 kits differ from Grade 6-8 kits in the way they are packaged. In each 3-5 kit, there are two file boxes: a whole-group box and a cooperative box The Grades 3-5 whole-group boxes contain the following components: A teachers guide 45 lesson plan folders and CD-ROMs containing all whole-group texts as interactive digital files for use on an interactive or standard whiteboard.Whole-group instruction with a strong component of student interaction, is the first step in the CSI program.
It begins with explicit instruction and modeling by the teacher of comprehension strategy use with immediate student interaction as they learn the strategies.
This is an advanced version of shared reading.The Cooperative activities box in Grades 3-5 contains the following components:
Multiple copies of a student activity book (these are designed to be shared by pairs or small groups) Audio CDs featuring fluent reading models of all cooperative texts and a sample student reflection journal.
Please note that 30 journals are included with the purchase of each grade level kit, but are packaged separately).Now, lets look at how to use the program.First, who should teach CSI? The program has been developed for use by any teacher interested in improving comprehension and content area literacy. It has been extremely effective in engaging students and improving comprehension. Different implementations include: General ClassroomsIntervention classes/RTI initiativesESL classesAfter School/Extended Day and Summer School classes Before getting started with CSI, its important to discuss the different implementation options with your team and decide which option best fits the needs of the students being served, as well as which option best fits with your existing curriculum.
CSI is unique in that it includes content not only for English language arts, but for literacy in math, science and social studies. There are texts in CSI that contain content typical of websites; textbook; standardized tests; and reference books in the content areas.CSI has been designed to be flexible. Teachers can decide what pace to move at, whether they will implement a team or individual teaching approach, and students can encounter a variety of content area texts or focus on one at a time. Scheduling options are provided in the teachers guides, but these are suggestions.The first step in the CSI instructional sequence is whole-group instruction. You will need these components to complete the lesson. If you have an interactive whiteboard, or a digital projector in the class, you can use the interactive CD-ROMs for the whole-group lesson. If you dont, the same texts are provided for you as overhead transparencies. There are seven strategies used in CSI. They are: Making connections Asking Questions Visualizing Drawing Inferences Determining Important Ideas Synthesizing Information and Monitoring Comprehension and Repairing Understanding.
Detailed information on each strategy can be found on the front of the lesson plan folders. The program authors have set out the strategies to be learned from easiest to hardest.
Piloting teachers have sometimes chosen texts differently to suit a teaching theme perhaps. Maybe you want students to focus on learning to draw inferences. You could teach all five inferencing lessons in a row.
CSI is designed to fit around what you want or need to do with your students. The strategies in CSI are recommended by Harvey and Goudvis and Zimmerman and Hutchins, and are reinforced by the National Reading Panel, and other researchers. There is often debate about whether summarizing is a separate strategy. CSI places summarizing within synthesizing, as is done by Harvey and Goudvis.To help teachers prepare for the lesson, the information on the front of the lesson plan folder is a summary of research, and gives information about standards, and text types. Every lesson focus is written as a learning objective in keeping with formative assessment practice. On the inside front cover of the folder is a detailed lesson plan exemplar that is designed to support teachers.
During CSI piloting we noted that teachers often vary this plan.
The authors strongly recommend teachers use the interaction with students as they teach. The stand and deliver teaching style is not as effective.
Note there is teacher modeling, and student interaction before, during, and after reading.
On the inside front cover of the folder is a detailed lesson plan that is designed to support teachers. Teachers may vary from the lesson plan, but the key is to:State the lesson focus and Keep the lesson interactive. (The authors strongly recommend teachers use the interaction with students as they teach. The stand and deliver teaching style is not as effective.) Please note there is teacher modeling, as well as student interaction before, during, and after reading.
The implementation of each lesson may vary in length. In most cases, it takes about 25 minutes to complete a whole class lesson, although some teachers may extend the lesson based on student need or additional teachable moments. The key getting students to grasp the strategy being taught. There are 5 lessons per strategy so that students are exposed to using the same strategy with multiple text types across content areas.
Youll notice the icons throughout the lesson. These icons are quick prompts for the teachers to help keep the lesson focused on teaching of the strategy at hand.
The authors strongly recommend that if there is a note above the lesson plan, teachers follow this closely, as it could impact on the effectiveness of the lesson to follow. Often the note asks teachers to mask the text so that only certain parts can be seen by the students before the teacher is ready to take them through it.At the conclusion of the whole-group lesson, turn to the back of the folder.
There is a page number and image of a cooperative student book page provided.
This is the follow up cooperative text for this particular strategy lesson, and the text that the students should work on next. So, first you are explicitly teaching a strategy with a particular content area text. Then, youre gradually getting the students to learn and apply the strategy on their own, first through pair or small group practice of the same strategy in the same content area, with an alternate piece of text.
The CSI authors recommend this lesson be done the same day or the day after the whole group lesson otherwise students may forget the strategy learning from the whole group lesson. We now come to the second step on the CSI instructional sequence: cooperative learning.
Here are the components you will need for this stage.
Please note that grades 3-5 kits contain markers and blank transparencies.
The transparencies are for students to place over the page of the book to respond to the text through simple annotations a research-supported approach.
Instructions for them are provided in the book.
Note that audio CDs provide fluent reading models, particularly to support struggling readers and English language learners.Research has shown that reading with audio support and repeated reading leads to marked improvements in student reading performance.Each cooperative activity has a corresponding strategy-based graphic organizer.
Graphic organizers are especially helpful for ELL students but they support all students to organize their thinking and their writing.
They can be photocopied from the back of the teachers guide, or printed from the interactive disks. Arrange the students into pairs or small groups.
Each pair or group should have a cooperative activity book.
Some students might need to listen to the audio CDs, while other students will read the text to each other, as instructed in the activities in the book.
In some pilots teachers have played the audio to the whole class as they do a first reading of the text.
Support your students as the read, think, and talk their way through the text.
As they work through the text-based activities, the students should complete the graphic organizer. CSI graphic organizers are fun and engaging for students and research-based.
Each is linked in a direct way to the comprehension strategy being taught for that particular text.
In one pilot school, students decided to make up their own graphic organizers and then compared them with the ones in CSI!The third step in the CSI instructional sequence is independent reflection on, and application of, strategies. The reflection journal is a consumable item that students can keep all year round. It allows them to record and reflect on texts that they read in or out of class, of any text type, in any content area. Some teachers are using it as a portfolio to assess.The journal is written in student-friendly language, and contains space for reflection, a strategy use graph, a personal assessment rubric and more.It contains models of entries for each strategy and blank templates for students to fill out.CSI also contains rubrics for formative assessment both for the teacherAnd students.
There are suggestions in the Teachers Guide about how to use the rubrics.If you have an interactive whiteboard in the classroom, or a digital projector attached to your computer, you can utilize the interactive disks in CSI.Insert the interactive CD-ROM into your computer and the main menu screen will automatically load.
Please note the disks are not to be copied by non-purchasers but individual users may find they work best when copied to their hard drive.Select the content area, then choose a text within that area. Please note the graphic organizers relate to the student cooperative texts, not the whole group texts.
We are going to open Shark.
The text will open into a viewer like thisThe bolded words in the text have interactive glossary definitions click on the bolded word and the glossary definition will appear in a text box.
Research into vocabulary acquisition supports the use of hyper-linked glossaries.Where words lend themselves well to picture definitions, you will find picture glossaries.
These particularly help ELLs and struggling readers with background knowledge related to the texts.About a quarter of CSI digital texts contain embedded video.
The video is included as extra support for students, particularly ELLs and struggling readers. Students have enjoyed the video support in the CSI pilot schools.
The icons at the bottom of the screen allow teachers and students to interact with the text in different ways. Many teachers allow the students to come forward and use these buttons to illustrate points they are making about the text.The mask tool is extremely popular among teachers who are using CSI. At the touch of a button you can black out all of the text except the area you want students to focus on. This has proved very valuable for prediction (based, for example on the title) and for highlighting text features such as graphs and tables.Some lesson plans have the teacher set up the interactive text showing only the title first. Note how the masked part of the text can be brought to the center of the screen and magnified. This is especially helpful when looking closely at text features.
CSI contains options for how your annotations look in color and sizeYou can also model how to annotate text by using virtual sticky notes. Annotating the text helps to slow the reading down so that students discover and uncover ideas that wouldnt have emerged otherwise. Plus, its fun to use virtual sticky notes!You can resize your notes, rotate them and move them around the text easily.You can even type into them while standing at the whiteboard.Deleting is simple. Just select the trashcan and any annotations you touch on the text will disappear.From the home menu you can save your annotated texts, open older versions, or print the text out at the end of a class.Having student reading at grade level does not guarantee that they will continue on at school as proficient comprehenders of text.
With its engaging subject matter, interactivity, explicit whole-group and cooperative instruction, video, and audio support, CSI will equip your students with the necessary comprehension skills for their future, regardless of their differing reading levels.
The research suggest that the students who most need comprehension instruction are least likely to get it. CSI provides comprehension instruction to all students. To learn more about CSI and join our online community, please visit the CSI website at www.csi-literacy.com. It hosts an online community where you can learn more about the product, download an interactive demo, post questions and comments, and see what is happening in the world of CSI. For customer service or additional support using CSI, please contact Pacific Learning at [email protected] or 800-279-0737, or visit us online at www.pacificlearning.com.