Sexaual Harassment - William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
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DESCRIPTIONDr. William Allan Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. In 1981, he was a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and in 1987 was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. In June 2008, Dr. Kritsonis received the Doctor of Humane Letters, School of Graduate Studies from Southern Christian University. The ceremony was held at the Hilton Hotel in New Orleans, Louisiana.
<ul><li> 1. Steps in Conducting SEXAUAL HARASSMENT Investigations By Janet L Horton Bracewell & Patterson, L.L.P. 2900 S. Tower, Pennzoll Place Houston, Texas 77002 (713)221-1217 Kev 1: Develop and disseminate an effective policy. Every college and school district needs a policy against sexual harassment. The policy should be printed in student handbooks and employee manuals, it should be explained at in-services and student orientations. The name and phone number of the District's Title IX coordinator and other resource persons should be published in all handbooks and manuals. Policies should be periodically reviewed and updated to ensure their effectiveness. Ensure that your procedures are flexible enough to enable the complainant to bypass the accused in filing a complaint. Kev 2: Provide annual training. Supervisory personnel need specialized training on how to recognize and respond to allegations of sexual harassment, how to resolve disputes, and how to help subordinates understand the policy against sexual harassment. Supervisory personnel should in-service their subordinates. Provide anti-victimization programs for students. Kev 3: Respond promptly to allegations of sexual harassment. Every college and district must foster an environment in which employees and students feel confident in the complaint system, it is essential that school officials respond promptly to allegations of sexual harassment and that all sexual harassment allegations be taken seriously. Most investigations should be initiated within a few days of receipt of the complaint (actual completion of the investigation may take longer in which case you should periodically give the complainant a status report). Parents should be notified as soon as possible about allegations involving their child, and the investigation process should be explained. Notify CPS or an appropriate law enforcement agency if there is any reason to suspect abuse or neglect. At the outset of the investigation, the accused should be warned in writing to avoid contact with the complainant pending disposition of the complaint, in cases involving threats or physical abuse, consider taking interim action pending disposition of the complaint. For example, it may be necessary to temporarily transfer the accused or to place him on administrative leave. Review your policies and consult with appropriate administrators before taking action against the accused. Kev 4: interview the complainant. if more than one complainant has come forward concerning the same or similar incidents, be sure to interview them separately. Adult complainants should complete an appropriate grievance form. The interviewer needs to learn the name of the accused(s), relevant dates, alleged acts, frequency of conduct, and the complainants response to the conduct. Complainants should be encouraged to be as factually specific as possible, if the complainant </li> <li> 2. is vague, timid, or bashful, be patient. For example, if the complainant states, "He makes me feel uncomfortable," she should be asked for a description of the specific acts that make her feel uncomfortable. Use dolls or drawings with young children if appropriate, complainants should be assured of protection from retaliation. They should be encouraged to report any allegations of retaliation to the investigator. Although the interview of the complainant should be professional and objective, the complainants credibility often is an issue, so be sure to ask appropriate questions that will enable you to evaluate his or her credibility. Ask for names of witnesses. Examine any physical evidence (e.g., letters, answering machine tapes, photographs, calendars). Prepare a written summary of the interview and request the complainant (or parent) to sign the summary. Key 5: Remain objective. During the interview of the complainant and during the investigation process, the investigator must remain objective, without conceding the truth or falsity of the allegations. Neutrality may be difficult during the interview of the complainant. If the complainant needs repeated reassurance during the process, inform her of the counseling opportunities that are available. Kev 6: interview witnesses named bv the complainant. interview all persons suggested to you by the complainant. Remind all witnesses to keep the matter confidential. Avoid unnecessarily divulging details about the investigation. In cases in which the complainant has chosen to remain anonymous, avoid disclosing the identity of the complainant. Ask open-ended questions, e.g., "Have you ever felt any concern over any comments that Mr. smith has made during class?" If witnesses are unavailable or refuse to cooperate, document your efforts to contact them. Kev 7: interview the accused. some investigators prefer to interview the accused after completion of most of the initial investigation (i.e, after interviewing the complainant and any corroborating witnesses). The timing of the interview will depend on the nature of the allegations. When interviewing the accused, avoid general questions such as "Did you harass her?" or "Do you think you acted inappropriately?" Ask specific questions based on the complainant's allegations, e.g., "Did you rub her neck?", "Did you tell her she looked pretty?", "Did you make a joke about male anatomy?" Ask for names of witnesses. The accused may be frustrated or angry, particularly if the name of the complainant is withheld. Explain that the investigation is an automatic response to a complaint under school policy and that, at this stage, the name of the complainant cannot be disclosed. Regardless of whether the accused knows the identity of the complainant, the accused should be reminded of the policy against retaliation. The investigator should type a summary of the interview and ask the accused to sign the summary. The accused may be asked to answer and sign a sworn questionnaire, but the district's legal counsel should be consulted in connection with the preparation of such a document. Kev 8: interview witnesses named bv the accused. Same as Key 6. -2- </li> <li> 3. Kev 9: Examine documentary evidence, if anv. occasionally, allegations can be tested by looking at written documents. A complainant may allege that an attack occurred on a certain date, but the accused may be abie to establish that he had jury duty that day. An accused may attempt to establish a retaliatory motive by a student with reference to a students written work or tests. Examine student files and personnel files as appropriate. Always determine whether the accused was previously warned about inappropriate behavior or was previously accused of dishonesty. Determine whether the accused previously attended an in-service on sexual harassment. If a teacher was transferred from one school to another within the district, contact the previous principal, but do not gratuitously reveal details about the ongoing investigation. Kev 10: Re-interview the complainant, if necessary. After the investigator has interviewed the accused and any witnesses, it may be necessary to meet with the complainant to ask follow-up questions. Kev 11: Prepare an investigation report. Each school's policy will dictate how the report should be written. Some require a purely factual summary of what witnesses have said, others require a written factual summary as well as specific findings and conclusions, including findings and conclusions about whether the policy was violated. Again, depending on the policy, the report may be reviewed by a higher- level administrator. A report should be prepared even if the complaint is not sustained. At the conclusion of the investigation, the report should be made available to the accused and to the complainant. Key 12: implement anv recommendations. investigations usually result in one of three findings: sustained, not sustained, or inconclusive. Penalties may include suspension, dismissal, reprimand, removal of perks, or a change of assignment If written directives are issued to the accused, the directives should be factually specific. A sustained complaint does not mean guilt beyond a reasonable doubt; it means that a preponderance of the evidence indicates that the sexual harassment policy has been violated. School or college policy should dictate a procedure for implementing any recommendations, if there is a finding of harassment, the accused should be able to appeal either the finding of harassment or the penalty assigned. If the complaint is not sustained, then the complainant should have an opportunity to contest the finding. The regular grievance procedure often is used for this purpose, although some districts have special sexual harassment procedures, individuals with contracts (or property interests in continued employment) are entitled to due process before being terminated or suspended without pay; if employed by a public school district, the employee may be entitled to other statutory protections, in an inconclusive case, it nonetheless may be prudent to meet with the accused to remind him or her about the purpose of the sexual harassment policy and to remind him or her to avoid actions that give the appearance of impropriety. The accused also should be warned about retaliation. Even in a case in which the charges are not sustained, there may be tension as a result of the investigation, which may necessitate some action, such as a transfer or reassignment in cases involving employee-to-employee harassment, the complainant should rarely, if ever, be transferred; such action could be viewed as retaliatory. However, in some situations, the complainant may request it, in which case her request and/or consent should be documented. -3- </li> <li> 4. Kev 15: Follow UP. If an investigation reveals that an entire work area or department has been exposed to a large- scale sexual harassment problem, it may be necessary and desirable to schedule a series of sexual harassment workshops or, at a minimum, to distribute memoranda reminding employees about the school's policy. If the accused and the complainant will continue to have occasional contact, it may be prudent to follow up with the complainant several months after the investigation to ensure that harassment has not resumed. BROWLANB002UECTRS BPHOU1/SYS:474822.01 </li> </ul>
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