Dr. William Allan Kritsonis - Students Rights PPT
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<ul><li> 1. Student Religious Expression in Public SchoolsWhats Permissible & Whats NotWilliam Allan Kritsonis, PhD</li></ul> <p> 2. Student religious expressionin public schools Foundation Principles Dissecting Myths Overview of Whats Permissible Overview of Whats Not Untangling student-initiated 3. Issues/Topics: Classrooms Student Clubs Release Time Athletic events Assemblies Graduation Ceremonies Distribution of Literature Religious Holidays Student Opt-outs: curriculum, garb, holidays Teachers 4. Key Word:Sponsorship 5. Americas Growing ReligiousDiversity Protestant, Catholic,Jew 1600 religions &denominations 6. Buddhism 3-4 Million Americans 7. Hinduism 1.5-2MillionAmericans 8. Islam 6-8 Million Americans 9. How Religious Diversity Impacts Schools Different traditions &ways to pray Holidays &observances Sensitivity to coursecontent Attire Dietary needs 10. Foundation Principles Not the business ofgovernment to control,support or influence thekinds of prayer Americanssay. Government power &prestige behind religionplaces indirect pressure onreligious minorities toconform to prevailingexpressions. 11. Government must avoid sending messages to religious minorities that they are outsiders, not full members of the political community, and an accompanying message to adherents that they are insiders, favored members of the political community. Justice Sandra Day OConnor 12. Trust Relationship Familiesentrust public schools with the education of their children, but condition their trust on the understanding that the classroom will not be used to advance religious views that conflict with the private beliefs of the student or his or her family Justice William Brennan 13. Theplace of religion in our society is an exalted one, but it is not the place of the state to interfere with the role of the church, the family, or the inviolable citadel of the human heart and mind. Justice Tom Clark 14. Myths Students cannot pray, read Bible Prayer & Bible reading was common priorto Court decisions Bible cannot be studied in school Public schools cannot teach values Teachers cannot discuss religion oracknowledge holidays Lack of religion cause of social ills 15. Myth: Students cannot pray,read the BibleFact: Court forbadeschool ORGANIZEDor SPONSOREDreligion Private expressionallowed Moments of silence 16. Myth: Prayer & Bible readingwas commonFact: Only 1/3 of publicschools had organizedreligious exercisesbefore 1962 17. Myth: Bible cannot be studiedin schoolsFact: Court forbade onlyinspirational ordevotional study Academic study OK 18. Myth: Public Schools cannot teach valuesFact: Teachers can anddo teach commonvalues: honesty,respect, trust, civility,responsibility, etc. 19. Myth: Teachers cannot acknowledge religionFact: Religious topics maybe discussed whengermane Religious themes part ofour history, literature &social relationships However, teachers maynot use religiousreferences to proselytize 20. Myth: Social problems due tolack of school prayer Non sequitur Many causes; nosimple solutions 21. Whats Permissible Individual & private prayer Moments of silence Student-initiated religious clubs (secondary) Distribution of religious literature Student selected assignments/projects Teach about religion 22. Whats NotRule: School sponsored, directed, controlled orencouraged religious exercises Teacher-led prayer or Bible reading Teacher/administrator participating with students Turning over classrooms to students or outsiders Prayer/Bible reading over public address system Prayer/Bible reading at assemblies, concerts, athleticevents, other official activities Presentations or distributions by outsiders 23. Quandary: Student-Led Mustbe truly student-controlled or studentautonomy Not student-led ifpart of schoolsponsored orcontrolled activity Student votes 24. Classrooms Assignments Art-work, projects Student presentations Teacher discussions Teach aboutreligions Moments of silence 25. Student Clubs Equal Access Act (1984) (secondary) Student-initiated & led Before or after classes Non-curriculum related Similar access to facilities, recognition Teachers monitor, not participate Good News Club 26. Release Time School-day religious instruction Off-campus Meaningfulalternatives Good News Club complication 27. Athletic Events Schoolcontrolled anddirected activities Student-led prayernot permitted Coach-led prayernot permitted Team prayers ? 28. Assemblies Schoolorganized,controlled events Outsider accessprohibited Student speech PublicForum Equal Treatment? 29. Graduation Prayer Clergy prayer notpermitted Student led for prayernot permitted Student votes Deep South exception Baccalaureates 30. Student Distributions Samerules as governnon-religious items Schools may imposereasonable time, place& manner limits Offensive material 31. Religious Holidays Observances OK Celebrations NOTOK Teachingopportunities Carols, sacred music 32. Student Opt-Outs Religious holidays &attend services Offensive coursematerial Religious garb Prayer time? 33. Evolution Teachingevolutionpermissible Equal time forcreation science orintelligent designnot permitted 34. Ten Commandments Posting of TenCommandments inschools not permitted May be used inacademic study 35. Teacher Religious Expression LimitedOpportunities(Public Employees) Not use classroom toshare faith Not participate instudent religiousactivities 36. Partnerships Churchmembers mayvolunteer to tutor,mentor in schools Not for proselytizing 37. Contacts American Jewish Congress 212-360-1545 Americans United 202-466-3234 ADL 212-885-7733 Baptist Joint Committee 202-544-4226 Christian Legal Society 703-642-1070 First Amend. Center 703-284-2859 PTA 202-289-6790</p>
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