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SERVSAFE Principles Food Science and Nutrition

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SERVSAFE Principles. Food Science and Nutrition. Personal Behaviors That Can Contaminate Food. Touching a pimple/sore Wearing a dirty uniform Coughing/sneezing into the hand Spitting . Scratching the scalp Running fingers through hair Touching the nose Rubbing an ear . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Slide 1

SERVSAFE PrinciplesFood Science and Nutrition

1Personal Behaviors That Can Contaminate Food

4-2

Scratching the scalp Running fingers through hair Touching the nose Rubbing an ear Touching a pimple/sore Wearing a dirty uniform Coughing/sneezing into the hand Spitting ABCDEFGHInstructor NotesSince food is easily contaminated, food handlers must pay close attention to what they do with their hands and maintain good personal hygiene.

Good personal hygiene includes:

4-3Maintaining personal cleanliness Wearing proper work attire Following hygienic hand practicesAvoiding unsanitary habits and actions Maintaining good health Reporting illnesses Instructor NotesMaintaining personal cleanliness means bathing or showering before work. Food handlers must also keep their hair clean, since oily, dirty hair can harbor pathogens.

4-4

Proper Hand washing Procedure

Wet hands with running water as hot as you can comfortably stand (at least 100F/38C).1Apply soap.2Vigorously scrub hands and arms for at least twenty seconds.3Clean under fingernailsand between fingers.4Rinse thoroughly under running water.56Dry hands and arms with a single-use paper towel or warm-air hand dryer.

Instructor NotesApply enough soap to build up a good lather. Lather well beyond the wrists, including the exposed portions of the arms. A nail brush may be helpful when cleaning under fingernails and between fingers. After drying hands, turn off the faucet using a single-use paper towel, if available. Food handlers should prevent hands from becoming contaminated prior to returning to the workstation.

Proper Dishwashing ProcedurePre-rinse/wipe-offWashSanitize (Rinse)Air-dry or towel dry

IMPORTANT TERMS TO ADD TO VOCABULARYAnaerobic Bacteria that will survive with out oxygen, generally fatal.

Flammable Materials such as potholders, clothing and aerosol cans that can start fires when near a heat source.

Infective Dose The number of organisms that will make you ill.

Toxin poison released from a microorganism.

Chemicals

3-14

Should only be applied by a licensed pest control operator (PCO)Wrap and store food prior to application PesticidesStore away from food, utensils, and equipmentFollow manufacturers directions for using themLabel them properly if they are transferredto new containers

Do not store food this way3-8Accidental Introductionof Foreign Objects

3-15Metal shavings Staples GlassNaturally Occurring Objects That Pose a Hazard Bones

Fingernails HairBandages3-9Instructor NotesPhysical contamination results when foreign objects are accidentally introduced into food, or when naturally occurring objects, such as bones in fillets, pose a physical hazard. It is important to inspect food for physical contaminants and to ensure that these contaminants are not introduced to food during its flow in the operation.

3-10Plant ToxinsSome plants are:

Toxic when raw, but safe when cooked Red kidney beans Fava beansNaturally toxic Rhubarb leaves Apricot kernels Water hemlock3-10Instructor NotesMost poisoning caused by plants results when toxic plants have been used in medicinal home remedies. Some illnesses have occurred after animals have eaten toxic plants and people have consumed the by-products of those animals. Avoid using toxic plant species and products prepared with them. Fava and red kidney beans should be cooked properly before use.

3-11Mushroom Toxins

Present in certain varietiesof wild mushroomsCan cause severe illnessAre not destroyed by cooking or freezing

3-11Instructor NotesMost foodborne-illness outbreaks associated with mushrooms are caused by the consumption of wild mushrooms collected by amateur hunters. Establishments should not use mushrooms picked in the wild unless they have been purchased from approved suppliers. Establishments that purchase mushrooms picked in the wild should have written buyer specifications that include the following: The mushrooms common name, Latin binomial, and its author Assurance the mushroom was identified in its fresh state Name of the person who identified the mushroom and a statement regarding his/her qualifications

2-3Microorganisms That Can ContaminateFood and Cause Foodborne Illness

2-12

2-4Living, single-celledCan be carried by food, water, soil, humans, or insectsCan reproduce rapidly under favorable conditionsSome survive freezingSome form sporesSome spoil food; others cause illnessSome produce toxins that cause illness

Basic Characteristics

2-13Instructor NotesKnowing what bacteria are and understanding how they grow is the first step in controlling them. BacteriaBacteria are really small. You can see colonies of bacteria growing on a petri dish but individual bacteria can only be seen on high power using a microscope.

http://www.sciencebuddies.org/mentoring/project_ideas/MicroBio_img_009.jpgListeria monocytogenes

http://www.wadsworth.org/databank/listeria.htm

http://textbookofbacteriology.net/Listeria.htmlE. coli

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Ecoli_colonies.png

http://www.scottcamazine.com/photos/EColi/pages/01toxigenicE_coli_jpg.htmStaphylococcus aureus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_aureus

2-6

(F.A.T.T.O.M)2-18Instructor NotesThe acronym FAT TOM can be used to remember the conditions necessary for the growth of foodborne microorganisms. These conditions will be discussed in the next six slides.

2-7Food Microorganisms require nutrients found in potentially hazardous food to grow Proteins Carbohydrates

2-19Instructor NotesMicroorganisms need food to growspecifically proteins and carbohydrates. Acidity

2-8

Pathogenic bacteria grow well in food that is slightly acidic or neutral (pH of 4.6 to 7.5)2-20Instructor NotesPathogenic bacteria typically do not grow in alkaline or highly acidic food. They prefer food that is slightly acidic or neutral (pH of 4.6 to 7.5).

Temperature

2-9

Most microorganisms grow well at temperatures between 41F and 140F (5C and 57C)

140F(57C)2-21Instructor NotesSome foodborne microorganisms grow at refrigeration temperatures. Food must be handled very carefully when it is thawed, cooked, cooled and reheated, since it can be exposed to the TDZ during these times.

Time

2-10

Foodborne microorganisms need sufficient time to grow4 hours or more in TDZ = growth high enough to cause illness

2-22Instructor NotesIf potentially hazardous food remains in the TDZ for four hours or more, pathogenic microorganisms can grow to levels high enough to make someone ill. Bacteria can double their population every twenty minutes.

Oxygen

2-11

Some pathogens require oxygen to grow, while others grow when oxygen is absent

2-23Instructor NotesPathogens that grow without oxygen can occur in cooked rice, untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures, and foil-wrapped baked potatoes that have been temperature abused.

Moisture

2-12

Most microorganisms grow well in moist food Moisture is calculated using a measurement called water activity (aw)Potentially hazardous food typically has an aw of .85 or higher

2-24Instructor NotesMost foodborne microorganisms require water to grow, which is why they grow well in moist food. The amount of moisture available in food for microorganisms to grow is called its water activity (aw). Water has an aw of 1.0. Potentially hazardous food typically has a water activity of .85 or higher.

2-14Caused by BacteriaSalmonellosis (eggs, poultry)Listeriosis (soft cheese, uncooked meats, un-washed vegetables.)Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis (red meat, poultry, eggs, crme filled baked goods, salads, mayo)Botulism (canned foods, honey)E Coli (cheese, ground meat, fresh produce, unpasteurized fruit juice)

2-25Instructor NotesThe next several slides will highlight some common bacterial illnesses. MOST SUSCEPTIBLE INFANTSELDERLYPEOPLE RECOVERING FROM ILLNESSES, SURGERIES OR ACCIDENTSPEOPLE WITH BIRTH DEFECTS AND PROLONGED ILLNESSES OR HEALTH CONDITIONSPREGNANT AND NURSING MOTHERS

2-27Basic CharacteristicsUnlike bacteria, they rely on a living cell to reproduceUnlike bacteria, they do not reproduce in foodSome may survive freezing and cookingCan be transmitted from person to person, from people to food, and from people to food-contact surfacesCan contaminate both food and water supplies

2-27Instructor NotesViruses usually contaminate food through a food handler's improper personal hygiene. 2-28Caused by Viruses Hepatitis A Norovirus Gastroenteritis Rotavirus Gastroenteritis

2-28

2-35Basic CharacteristicsLiving organisms that need a host to surviveSmall, often microscopicGrow naturally in many animals andcan be transmitted to humansPose a hazard to food and water

2-29Instructor NotesParasites typically are passed to humans through the meat of an animal host (i.e., pigs, fish). 2-36Caused by Parasites Trichinosis (uncooked wild game)AnisakiasisGiardiasis (fresh water from lakes, rivers unprocessed)ToxoplasmosisIntestinal CryptosporidiosisCyclosporiasis

2-30Instructor NotesThe next several slides will highlight some of the most commonly occurring parasitic illnesses identified in this list. FUNGIBegins as surface bacteriaFuzzy, furry appearanceReleases spores into the airPenetrates the interior of the foodLatter stages of deterioration are soft, spongy and watery Lab 18A Molds (Fungi)Bread molds

http://www.backyardnature.net/f/bredmold.htmhttp://leavingbio.net/FUNGUS/Fungi2_files/image041.jpgFruit molds

http://thumbs.ifood.tv/files/images/food/fruit-mold-08.jpg

http://www.lenscope.com/?c=1264Cheese Molds

http://www.lenscope.com/?c=1264

http://i-cdn.apartmenttherapy.com/uimages/kitchen/2010_09_14-moldycheese.jpgREVIEWName the four types of pathogens.How do you test a food to see if it is safe to eat it?What are three categories of contaminates?What is a danger zone? What are the temperatures of the danger zone?List the order for correctly washing dishes.Explain cross-contamination and list the common three pathways of cross-contamination.How long before a food-borne illness will make you sick?For what do the letters of FAT TOM stand?What groups of people are most susceptible to illness and death from food-borne illnesses?