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ServSafe Manual Summary OutlineNote: All references to temperature in this outline are in Fahrenheit. CHAPTER ONE: STARTING OUT WITH FOOD SAFETY What a food borne illness is and how it occurs? A food borne illness is a disease that is transferred to people by food. The elderly, children and people with suppressed immune systems are most likely to be affected by food borne illnesses. There are three types of hazards---biological, physical, and chemical. Foods that support the growth of microorganisms are called potentially hazardous foods. They are: Moist, high in protein and slightly acidic. Examples are dairy products, eggs, meat and poultry, seafood, raw vegetables, (alfalfa sprouts, cut melons, baked potatoes, beans, rice, and garlic and oil mixtures), and soy products, like tofu. Biological hazards are bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi. The key factor in controlling bacterial growth is to control conditions that favor that growth. These factors are: Food Acidity Time Temperature Oxygen Moisture Monitoring time and temperature can most easily control bacterial growth in food. Examples are: milk, shell eggs, meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, baked potatoes, tofu, sprouts, and sliced melons. Identify physical and chemical hazards.
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Physical: Bones, glass and metal pieces. Chemical cleaners, sanitizers and pesticides and common food allergies (milk, eggs, fish, nuts, and preservatives). You have to exclude personnel when they are infected with: Salmonella Shigella E. Coli Hepatitis A Biological toxins that come from fish are: Scromboid poisoning comes from tuna, bonito, and mackerel. Ciguatera comes from barracuda, grouper, and red snapper. Symptoms might include: Elevated body temperature Blindness Nausea Itching Dizziness Natural foods that are toxic: Red kidney beans and fava beans are toxic when raw Rhubarb leaves and apricot kernels Food Allergens: (6 to 7 million Americans have food allergies). Allergic reactions may occur immediately or several hours later. Symptoms include: Itching in and around the mouth, face, or scalp Tightening in the throat Shortness of breath Hives Swelling of the face, eyes, hands or feet Vomiting and cramps Loss of consciousness Death Examples of common food allergens are: ServSafe Page 2 of 20
Milk and dairy products Eggs Fish Shellfish Wheat Soy Peanuts and tree nuts How foods become unsafe: Remind employees that there are three major factors that can cause food to become unsafe. TIME AND TEMPERATURE ABUSE: The Temperature Danger Zone is 41 to 135. Move food out of this temperature range by cooking it to the proper temperature, freezing it, or by refrigerating it at 41 or lower. The four-hour rule limits the time food spends in the temperature danger zone. Prepare food in small batches and as close to the time of service as possible. Improper procedures are: Failure to properly cool foods. Cooking incorrectly. Not correctly handling food cooked previously. Allowing food to stay at room temperature for too long. CROSS-CONTAMINATION: How food and food-contact surfaces become contaminated. Raw food comes in hand to hand contact with ready to eat foods. Raw food drips onto ready to eat foods. Food contact surfaces such as cutting boards, knives and splash areas come into contact with raw foods. Raw food is added to food that receives no further cooking. POOR PERSONAL HYGIENE: Humans are the biggest source of foodborne illness because of improper hand washing practice. General practices: Bathing daily Wearing clean clothes ServSafe Page 3 of 20
Wearing hats or hair restraints Training employees not to touch face, hair, etc. without then washing their hands Not wearing jewelry or nail polish. Smoking only in designated areas. Drinking only from a covered cup. Hand washing: After any activity that would contaminate your hands. Use of gloves: Wash hands before putting gloves on. Wash when changing gloves. Change gloves when soiled or after 2 hours of general use. Band-Aids should always be covered with gloves. Gloves are never a substitute for proper hand washing procedures. Prohibited habits: Do not work with utensils before washing hands. Prevent touching food contact surfaces with hands. Do not sneeze or cough without covering and then return to work without washing hands. Do not wash hands in the prep sink. Do not stack plates when serving food. Do not wipe hands and use the same cloth for wiping. Do not eat while preparing food.
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How to keep food safe during the flow of food: Here are examples of how food can become unsafe at each step of the flow of food because of time and temperature abuse, cross-contamination, and poor personal hygiene. The steps include: Receiving - Correct temperature Holding - Correct time and temperature Storing - Away from chemicals Serving - Contamination and personal hygiene Preparing - Proper temperature and time Cooling - Correct temperatures Cooking - Know cooking temperatures for various foods Re-heating Know how to return food to serving condition The basics of food safety: Keep things clean and sanitized Practice good personal hygiene Wash hands thoroughly and frequently Minimize the time food spends in the temperature danger zone. Prevent cross-contamination How to prevent cross contamination: Create a physical barrier. Assign specific equipment to each type of food separate cutting boards should be used for raw and cooked foods. Clean and sanitize tools, equipment and utensils after each task. Create procedural barriers. Prepare raw and ready to eat foods are different times Purchase ingredients that require minimal preparation Time and temperature control: To prevent time and temperature abuse: Cook, hold, cool, and Re-heat food properly.
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Discard food that spends 4 hours or more in the temperature danger zone. Build time/temperature controls into recipes. Make using thermometers mandatory. Remove only as much food from storage as necessary. Below are the risk factors responsible for food borne illness. Purchasing food from unsafe sources Failing to cook food adequately Holding food at the improper temperatures Using contaminated equipment Poor personal hygiene CHAPTER TWO: ENSURING PROPER PERSONAL HYGIENE How employees can contaminate food: When they fail to wash hands after using the restroom, After touching their hair, face, or body and then touching food. By coughing or sneezing near food or food surfaces. By touching or scratching a cut or abrasion and then touching food. After touching anything that can contaminate food. Personal cleanliness practices: Report illness Shower or bathe daily Bandage any cuts and abrasions; always wear gloves over bandages Clean and trim fingernails Avoid wearing nail polish or false fingernails Leave all jewelry at home Wear clean uniforms and aprons Avoid eating, smoking, or drinking on the job Wear a hair restraint when working with food When and how to wash your hands: After using the restroom Before and after handling raw food After touching hair, face, or body After coughing and sneezing into your hands ServSafe Page 6 of 20
When switching from one task to another After handling chemicals Before and after changing gloves After busing tables After handling cleaning chemicals After handling garbage Before and after a work break After eating, drinking, or smoking Anytime after contact with anything that can contaminate food Where to wash hands: Hands should be washed in a dedicated hand-washing sink. This sink should be located in a convenient location close to work areas. They should never be washed in a food-prep sink or in a pot-and-pan sink. How to wash hands: Step 1: Wet hands with hot running water as hot as you can stand. Step 2: Apply enough soap so that you can build up a good lather. Step 3: Rub hands together for at least twenty seconds. Lather well beyond the wrists and the exposed portions of the arms. Step 4: Clean under fingernails and between fingers. Step 5: Rinse thoroughly under running water. Step 6: Dry hands. How to use gloves properly: Gloves should never be worn in place of hand washing. Employees should change gloves: When they are soiled or torn Before beginning a different task After handling raw meat and before handling cooked or Ready-to-eat food Gloves should only be used over clean hands. ServSafe Page 7 of 20
Food handlers must be reported to the local health authority if they are classified as having a food borne illness, i.e. Jaundice, Hepatitis A, and E. Coli. If they have symptoms like fever and diarrhea and vomiting they must be restricted from working with or around food. HIV positive condition is not grounds for restricting from food service. Food infection vs. Food intoxication Symptoms of infections do not appear immediately. A person eats food containing pathogens, which then grow in the intestines and cause illness. Food borne intoxication results when a person eats food containing toxins (poisons) that cause illness. These symptoms appear quickly, usually within a few hours. Food borne toxin-mediated infections result when a person eats food containing pathogens (germs), which then produce illness-causing toxins (poisons) in the intestines. CHAPTER THREE: PURCHASING, RECEIVING, & STORING FOOD How to calibrate and use a thermometer: What a thermometer does and different types of thermometers: Should read 0- 220. With a 2 accuracy. Bi-metallic is the most common. Digital can come with many adaptors for surface or probe use. TTI stands for time and temperature indicators. They are most often used on packaging. Thermometer should be used in the warmest part of the refrigerator. How to calibrate one. Ice point method or boiling point? Ice point is preferred because of safety issue. Put thermometer probe into a glass. Do not let probe touch the glass. ServSafe Page 8 of 20
Adjust the dial while probe is in the water. Electronic thermometers need new batteries or sent to manufacturer. Recalibrate thermometers when dropped or exposed to extreme temperature change. How to check the temperature of different foods: Bi-metallic thermometer used for inserting in meats, etc. Bulk foods, the thermometer is wrapped around packaging. Thin foods; use a thermocouple that measures surface temperature. Stuffed foods should be measured by placing the thermometer into the center of the stuffing. Temperatures of a large pot of soup should be measured by taking a reading in several places in the batch. Open one milk carton to measure temperature. Put thermometer between packages. Thermometers should be placed in the warmest part of a refrigerator. Check temperature of live shellfish by inserting a stem or probe thermometer into the middle of the case for an ambient temperature reading. When to accept or reject a delivery: When assigned the responsibility for receiving food, an employee should know when to accept or reject a delivery based on the following standards: Temperature of the product (temperatures for receiving are the same as storage temps.) This is especially true for meat and poultry. Appearance, color, smell, and texture of the product: Beef should be bright red and moist. Lamb should be light red. ServSafe Page 9 of 20
Pork should be light pink with firm white fat. Fish: Eyes should be clear and bright. Flesh is shiny, firm, and springs back when touched. Chicken: No discoloration. Flesh is firm and springs back when touched. Should be packaged in crushed, self-draining ice.
Condition of the product: Check boxes for water stains that would indicate freezing and thawing. Initiate and maintain a good relationship with supplier. Inspect their warehouse and see if they have ServSafe certification. Inspect delivery for counts, weights, and temps. Temperatures for receiving: 41 for poultry, fish, dairy, meats, ready to eat foods. 45 for live seafood. Fresh fruits and vegetables have various temperatures above 41, except cut melons should be received at below 41. Frozen foods should be received frozen. Ice cream should be at 6-10. How to properly store food: Employees should know the following points regarding how to properly store food: Store foods quickly after they are received. Refrigeration only slows bacterial growth. Don t overload or line shelves. Food stored in refrigeration should be held at 41 or below. Store food in a clean and dry place away from chemicals and garbage. Follow the FIFO (First In First Out) principle, this insures that older supplies are used before newer ones. Store raw meat, poultry, and fish below ready-to-eat foods ServSafe Page 10 of 20
or completely separately in another refrigerator. Regularly monitor the temperature of food stored in refrigerators and freezers. Store food at least six inches off of the floor and away from the wall. Anything packed; especially fish and poultry, in ice should be self-draining. Dry storage should be 50-70. Rice, baking goods, canned goods. Wipe cans before opening. Keep shellfish tags for 90 days. Use eggs within 4-5 weeks of packing date. Be sure to label and date everything. You can use items stored at 41 for up to 7 days. Chemicals and cleaning agents should be stored away from food in their original containers. CHAPTER FOUR: PREPARING, COOKING, AND SERVING FOOD Proper thawing practices: Four acceptable methods. Under refrigeration at 41 for lower (put them on the lowest shelves) Under running, drinkable water at 70 or lower (completely submerge item in pan) In a microwave if cooked immediately As part of the cooking process Proper preparation and cooking practices: Prepare food in small batches. Storing prepared foods as quickly as possible. Cooking food to the minimum required internal temperature reduces the number of foodborne organisms to safe levels, but does not destroy spores and toxins they create.
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The required minimum internal cooking temperature for poultry, ground meat, pork, beef and fish: Poultry and stuffed meats = 165 Pork = 145 Ground meats = 155 Beef/Pork roasts cooked for 3 minutes = 145 Beef/Pork roasts cooked for 12 minutes = 140 Beef/Pork roasts cooked for 21 minutes = 130 Steak = 145 Fish = 145 Eggs (for immediate use) = 145 Eggs (for hot holding) = 155 Stuffed foods/casseroles = 165 Lamb = 145 If you are adding previously cooked ingredients, then it must be cooked to 165. If you are adding raw ingredients, then they must be cooked to their own minimum internal cooking temperature. Foods served at your establishment that require special handling (such as egg and egg mixtures, batters, and breading): Keep items from being handling longer than 4 hours. Refrigerate until ready to prepare. Minimize human contact. Use proper sanitized utensils. Avoid cross contamination. When breading, use pasteurized eggs if possible and throw out old breading. Cool cooked meats before using in salads. When making sauces with eggs (i.e. Hollandaise), that will not be heated up to 145 then you should only use pasteurized eggs. Microwaves tend to cook food more unevenly than other methods. Therefore, there are special rules for using microwave ovens to cook meat, poultry, and fish:
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Cover food to prevent the surface from drying out. Rotate or stir food halfway through the cooking process to distribute heat more evenly. Let food stand for at least two minutes after cooking to let product temperature equalize. Eggs, poultry, fish, and meat cooked in a microwave must be heated to 165 or higher. Proper holding practices: Hold hot foods at 135 or higher. Keep containers covered. Stir food regularly. Hold cold foods at 41 or lower. Do not place foods directly on ice. Check the temperature of food at least every two hours. Use a separate thermometer to check temperature of product itself. Do not rely on unit thermometer. Never mix old food with new. Proper cooling practices: Cool hot food from 135 to 70 within two hours and then continue to cool to 41 or lower in the next four hours. If not, then Re-heat to 165 within 2 hours. Use the following methods to cool food: Reduce the size of the food Put the food in ice water baths Blast chill the food Stir the food with ice paddles Stainless steel transfers heat more quickly than plastic. Use shallow pans. Shallow pans disperse heat more quickly than deep pans. Proper re-heating practices: Re-heat food for hot holding to an internal temperature of 165 for fifteen seconds within two hours. ServSafe Page 13 of 20
Never Re-heat food in hot-holding equipment that isn t designed to do it. Rotate or stir microwaved food midway through Re-heating process. Let stand for 2 minutes. Serving and Buffet Line Check temperatures every 2 hours. Food should be below 41. Do not touch food contact surfaces of plates, glasses, or silverware. Use long handled tools. Sneeze guards should be in place at the proper height. Customers should use clean plates every time. Utensils should be sanitized every 4 hours during continuous use. Delivery or catered food: Label food with storage, shelf life, and Re-heating directions. Provide safety guidelines for consumers on which items should be eaten immediately, or saved for later. Deliver food items in containers that can maintain correct food temperatures. Label containers with correct Re-heating instructions. Always maintain heat to a minimum 135. CHAPTER FIVE: CLEANING AND SANITIZING Cleaning vs. Sanitizing explain to your employees that: Cleaning only removes food residue, while sanitizing reduces microorganisms on a surface to safe levels. Any surface that comes in contact with food must be cleaned and then sanitized. Explain to your employees that they should clean and sanitize food-contact surfaces.
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After every use. When they begin working with another types of food. When they are interrupted during a task. If they are using something constantly it must be sanitized every four hours. How sanitizers work: The effectiveness of a sanitizer depends on the: Temperature of the water (chemical sanitizers work best between 75 and 120). Amount of time the sanitizer is in contact with the item. Concentration of the sanitizer itself. Sanitizer strength is depleted when it is exposed to detergent particles. Make sure employees read the label on the sanitizer and use it only as directed. Factors that affect cleaning: Type of food or mineral residue that are hard to clean: Protein based: Eggs Fatty: Margarine Alkaline/acids: Tea or Fruit Juices Mineral based: Scale Type of food residue that are easy to clean: Starches dissolve in water and are easy to remove. Condition of items or areas: Baked on food residue Dried food residue Water hardness reduces the effectiveness of detergents and therefore the cleaning process. Hot water works quicker and easier. Types of surface:
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Chlorine darkens aluminum Acidic eats away at stainless steel Types of cleansers: Detergents are used to remove wax, dried food residue, and baked on grease. Solvent Cleaners dissolve baked on grease, especially on oven doors. Acid Cleaners are used on mineral deposits on dishwashers and rust. Abrasive Cleaners are used on hard to remove stains and baked or dried food residue on pots and pans. How to manually clean and sanitize: How to manually clean and sanitize tableware and equipment in a threecompartment sink. Types of sanitizers: Chlorine, but may leave odor. Iodine but may stain surfaces and will work best at ph below 5. Quits (quaternary ammonium compound) work best when water hardness in below 500 ppm (particles per million). Techniques for using sanitizers: Sanitizers will kill most bacteria. Rinse surfaces well. Sanitizers work better when there is less dirt and detergent residue. Therefore when excessive detergent builds up in the rinse sink the water should be changed. Use a test kit to measure the concentration. When temperatures are between 55 and 120. The higher the temperature the shorter the contact time with sanitizer. Properly test the concentration of the sanitizers used in your machines. Clean and sanitize sinks first.
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Scrap, soak or pre-rinse plates first. 1st sink is for washing should be 110. 2nd sink is for rinsing to remove detergents before going into sanitizing sink. 3rd sink is for sanitizing, if hot water is used for sanitizing, water should be 171. If using chemical sanitizing, then follow instructions for that chemical. Usually chemical sanitizing temperatures range between 55 and 120. If the rinse cycle water temperature is too hot then the chemical will be evaporated. Last step is to air dry. How to use a dishwashing machine: Sanitizing can be either with hot water or chemical. Check detergent and sanitizer dispensers to make sure they are filled. Check water temperature and pressure. Scrap all plates before washing. Keep the machine clean inside and out. Don t overload dish racks. Wash temperature range from 150 to 165. Rinse temperatures range from 165to less than 195. When you are using a high temperature machine for sanitizing, if the water temperature gets too hot (above 195) then it might vaporize before sanitizing items, or it can bake food particles onto utensils. Always air dry to maintain sanitary conditions. How to store clean items: Clean and sanitize drawers and shelves, and the trays and carts used to transport items. Store glasses and cups upside down. Store flatware and utensils with the handles up. How to store cleaning supplies: ServSafe Page 17 of 20
Remind employees to always store chemicals away from food and food-prep areas. All cleaning supplies should be stored away from food prep areas. Mops should be hung upside down to allow to air dry. All chemicals used in the facility should be kept in their original containers and have MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) to inform the foodhandlers about the hazards associated with the chemicals they are working with. Integrated pest management: 3 rules of an integrated pest management system: Deny pests access. Pests can, and often do, come in with deliveries. Check holes and cracks, openings must be screened. Screens should be at least 16 mesh. Use self-closing doors. Deny pests food, water and nesting place. Cleaning the establishment helps destroy pests food supply. Work with Pest Control Operator (PCO) Identify Pests: Roaches: Strong oily odor, feces look like grains of black pepper. Egg capsules are brown or dark red. If you see roaches in the daytime you probably have a major infestation. Flies transmit food borne illnesses. Rodents: Look for signs of gnawing. Fresh droppings are shiny and black. Older ones are gray. Mice use scraps of paper, cloth, and hair to build nests. Rats burrow in dirt or along foundations. ServSafe Page 18 of 20
How to choose a PCO: Talk to other vendors who have PCO s. Are they licensed by the state? Are they insured? Can you tell their level of expertise? Get a written contract and warranty. Pesticides should be stored in their original containers and secured in a separate cabinet. State and local food service inspections: What to do when you are inspected. Ask if this is a regular inspection or the result of a customer complaint. Accompany the inspector and take notes. Ask questions. Be professional; do not offer food or drinks. Show records of previous inspections. Review inspection with inspector. Correct any little error while inspector is there. Hazards requiring immediate closure: Significant lack of refrigeration Back up of sewage Emergencies such as fire, flood, etc. Serious pest infestation Lengthy electrical or water service interruption Procedures resulting in closure: Given a short amount of time to correct a serious violation, usually 48 hours or less. Inspector will return at a scheduled time to re inspect the property.
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If the facility poses an immediate threat to the health of the public then they can ask for a voluntary closure. An immediate suspension to operate may be issued. Back flow and drainage: When you connect a hose to a faucet and the other end is submerged in a mop bucket you have created a cross connection. This will result in the possibility of the water system being contaminated. Connecting a pipe between a potable water source and a water source of unknown quality is unacceptable at any time. CHAPTER SIX: FOOD SAFETY REGULATIONS Government control of food is on three levels, federal, state, and local. The Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) writes the Food Code which is updated every 2 years. The States use the Food Code to pass laws regulating food service practices. County health inspectors enforce these laws and regulatory practices.
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