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Public Sector Purchasers as Curators and Value Creators in the Food System

Public Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System A Case Study of the Public Purse Procurement (3P) Mentorship Program Hayley LapalmeProgram Designer/Facilitator

M.Ed. Candidate Adult Education & Community DevelopmentUniversity of Toronto

Visiting Graduate Student at OCAD [email protected]

RSD4 | September 3, 2015 | The Banff Centre

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#WelcomeMy name is Hayley LapalmeIm a masters student at the University of Toronto and the Ontario College of Art and DesignId like to acknowledge the traditional territories of the Stoney Nakoda First Nations, where it is really a pleasure to share some of my work on a program I piloted last year, called the Public Purse Procurement Mentorship Program, which is really about reconnection in our food systemToday Ill speak about why I believe Public Sector Purchasers can play a role as value creators or curators - for a resilient food system.1

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#I a practitioner coming at this steeped in adult education and sustainabilityThe work I am going to share comes out of a one-year pilot of the Public Purse Procurement (3P) Mentorship ProgramThe program brings together the food service teams in public sector purchasers to learn about food systems and to empower them to leverage their purchasing power to make public dollars work for the public good.

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@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Members of the first cohort one missing!3

Karen Blaha

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#I got started on this work with public institutions almost 5 years ago, shortly after I interviewed a peach farmer in the Okanagan, in BC.She was defeated when I asked her if she sprayed her fruit. I have no choice if I want to compete.She told me she would not pass her farm on to her children because it would be child abuse to do so If she had to do it again, she would diversify what she grew, so she was less vulnerable to pest, disease, fluctuations in the market. Then she would have some quality of life.

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# farmersfarm sizeconsolidation192720112001

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Her story was not unusual. Farm secession is a growing challenge in Canada, as farming becomes increasingly difficult and arguably one of the more undervalued professions.

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/96-325-x/2014001/article/11905-eng.htmThe trends of fewer operators, fewer young operators and fewer farms showed no signs of reversing and may indicate more consolidation and significant turnover in farm assets in the future.- Statistics Canada, February 2015

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The trends of fewer operators, fewer young operators and fewer farms showed no signs of reversing and may indicate more consolidation and significant turnover in farm assets in the future.

- Statistics Canada, February 2015

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/96-325-x/2014001/article/11905-eng.htmThe trends of fewer operators, fewer young operators and fewer farms showed no signs of reversing and may indicate more consolidation and significant turnover in farm assets in the future.- Statistics Canada, February 2015

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Rigidity in the SystemEfficiency > Resilience Tradeoff Consolidation of ownership and decision making leads to a loss of redundancy and diversity in: Farms and farmersVariety of agricultural practicesSeed varieties cultivatedInfrastructure

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Our food system is sacrificing resilience for efficiency. The resilience of the system is compromised by consolidation of ownership and decision making, which leads to a loss of redundancy and diversity in farms and farmers, variety of agricultural practices, seed varieties cultivated, and infrastructure.

So wicked problem! But

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NOTES

Donella Meadows writes that Resilience is a measure of a systems ability to survive and persist within a variable environment. The opposite of resilience is brittleness or rigidity. The industrial food system that primarily serves the institutions is in the pursuit of efficiency.

Redundancy involves having excess capacity and back-up systems, which enable the maintenance of core functionality in the event of disturbances. This component assumes that an organization will be less likely to experience a collapse in the wake of stresses or failures of some of its infrastructure, if the design of that organizations critical infrastructure and institutions incorporates a diversity of overlapping methods, policies, strategies or services to accomplish objects and fulfill purposes.

CONSERVATION STAGE: As organizations become better at what they do, they become more efficient and specialized. Eventually a few organizations who are very good at what they do DOMINATE..At some point, conservation can lead to rigidity. A product or service may become outdated. Organizations that are very efficient at one thing run the risk of collapse if they cannot change and adapt.

This can happen in institutions if they become stuck in one way of seeing or doing things, or are unresponsive to the needs of patrons

If the institutional response is to adapt, this leads to the RELEASE stage.

If not, institutions can become stuck in the RIGIDITY TRAP.

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Who cares?

Altruism in business?Consumers buy our way to better?Government? Public Institutions

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#But who cares?Business, which controls food flows in the system, has few incentives to lead the way in re-imagining practices that are profitable today.And were not going to buy our way to a more resilient food system. NOT Vote with your dollar not address systemic roots. This challenge is not up to individual consumers. Institutions in Ontario spend $750M/year on food. These are public dollars in Anchor Institutions that are anchors in their communities that will be around for a long time. They have the missions and mandates to serve the public. They are a good point of entry.

As purchasers can either reinforce this trend toward consolidation, which makes our food system ever more fragile. Or it can act against it.

Were making the system increasingly vulnerable to disease or drought, and without even any amount of fear ongering about th future the reality is that there are more hungry people today than ever before.

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The secret behind value creation is building a better and better fit between relationships and knowledge.Normann & Ramirez, Harvard Business Review, 1993

Institutions: Claiming or Creating Value?

CLAIM VALUEOptimize for efficiency. CREATE VALUEOptimize for resilience.

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Peter Jones introduced me to the work of Normann and Ramirezs- their idea of moving from a value chain to a value creating constellation. This occurs through the reconfiguration of roles and relationships among [the] constellation of actors Like the quote says the goal is to build a better fit between relationships and knowledge.

A food system where relationships and flows are optimized for efficiency will claim value. Well see that in a moment. But it is extractive and consolidates wealth. On the other hand, a food system optimized for resilience, creates value among stakeholders within it. So how do institutions define value?

(This framework has been helpful for me to understand what it is we are trying to do with the mentorship program.)

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The Ecological System of ValuefutureImpact

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#So how do institutions define value?Here weve got the Ecological System with 2 axis the scale at which institutions are thinking about the scope of impact and time. Is value what serves the institution? Does it serve he community? Does it advance policy? Contribute to social inclusion and cohesion? Does it provide meaningful work? Does it sustain the environment for 7 generations to come?10

Impactfuture

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#I would argue that institutions are very good at maximizing value within their institutions in the here and now.Food Service depts are budget line priority about 42 in health care. MRI comes first.Their managers are always being asked to do more with less.They dont have the incentives to look farther ahead or to conceive of value more broadly.

Lets look at the value chain from which institutions are purchasing.

**Under extraordinary constraints, they are doing their best to serve the populations they feed.

I would argue that these constraints do not allow for a very expansive definition of best value, and in fact, that they cause institutions NOT to enhance the public good, but perhaps even to work to the detriment of the public good, by forcing them to draw from a food system that is increasingly consolidates resources and decision making in the hands of fewer and fewer corporations in a system that systematically alienates people whose livelihoods have long been to feed us. I would also argue that the limited defition of value contributes to social degradation in other sense: loss of meaningful work; a system of hyper capitalism that is ever-seeking new efficiencies to increase productivity, decrease costs, and accelerate extraction, with little regard to all the costs that are externalized in this process. So yes, I think we have a problem. 11

Food System Stakeholders

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Simplified model.The important thing to note here is the Distributors- Because there are so few of them relative to the number of producers and purchasers in the system, they are a bottleneck with considerable influence in the system. They control 80% of food going into institutions role is to understnd and fulfill the needs of institutions. Again, they have a VERY good understanding of their client, and they know institutions are working in resources strained environments, so they are optimized to serve them.

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Complexity in the Food System

Public Procurement of Food in Ontario

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Attempted to capture some of the complexity in the relationships between these stakeholders in a more elaborate map. Lets look at that. This is the food system as seen from an institutional perspective. The boundary is Ontario and includes just the realm of institutional food service. 13

Complexity in the Food System

Public Procurement of Food in Ontario

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Lets begin on the supply side of this system of public procurement 14

Consolidation in the Value Chain

Supply Subsystemto engulf everything-J.K. Galbraith (1967) in Meadows

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#The distributor draws from the processors and producers in the system to provide their service to institutions. It is in the distributors interest to find efficiencies, by streamlining their processes. There are costs related to ADMIN, LOGISTICS, and RISK for each new producer and processor the distributor works with. This creates an incentive reduce that number.

Creates an incentive to vertically integrate. Work with prefered vendors. Two gray funnels. The line of best fit runs through the producers and processors who are easiest to work with they have their food safety and liability in order. And the farther outside those gray funnels the distributors draw, the higher they perceive the cost and risk to be. (This leads to the exclusion of producers who dont fit into the business model that maximizes efficiciency.)

So again, this search for efficiency claims value and decreases resilience.

This consolidation through vertical integration or the goal to engulf everything [click] as J.K Galbraith described it, is a function of trying to shield the corporation from uncertainty. Corporate goals of survival in this subsystem (not just of profits or returns to shareholders) is leading to system suboptimization. This goal is pursued at the expense of the total system goal as I would frame it, that would be to nourish the growing number of us in a dignified way in perpetuity! But thats my bias!

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Complexity in the Food System

Public Procurement of Food in Ontario

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#So what can we do? Lets look at the demand subsystem16

Demand Subsystem

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Describe picture:all these institutions spend $750 million/yearDirective + regulations from provinceFunding from the province again these are public tax dollars[click reveal]Each instituion individually connects with the supply-side value chain, Primarily through a public contracting process: the Request for Proposal.BPS Directive dictates if over $100kMust go through a fair open transprantent procurement process

I would say on average an institution will purchase about 80% of its food through this process

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Claiming Value in the RFP Process

can exclude based on volume + accessibilitycan exclude based on visibilitycan exclude based on criteria

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#The RFP is a key mechanism through which institutions can reinforce consolidation in the food system. Inadvertantly, as passive consumers, they will inevitably do this. [click through examples] these examples reinforce consolidation and we see the success to the successful archetype at work in theBut the RFP can also create value in the system, if used intentionally.Quick VG Meats Example.18

More simply, as one Food Service Procurement Manager said:

Its easier to work with the incumbent.

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#

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Design Intervention

How might we design a minimally disruptive intervention within the space of public procurement to increase resilience in the food system?

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#What can we do within this environment?How might we design a minimally disruptive intervention within the space of public procurement to increase resilience in the food system?

Many analagous examples to draw from, like the work of : Health Care Withouth Harm, the 8 Shileds Institute, but the main thing that was driving this question was the fact that I had been working with institutions for 3 years through grants along with many others- and watched at the end of every granting cycle, this sort of champion flight. Efforts to source food with some expansion notion of value in mind ended when the coordinator hired by through the grant left for the year. So we knew we had to do something that would STICK.

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Leverage Points

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#There are many points of leverage [click through] but ultimately, we found that working with institutional food service managers within institutions were our best point of leverage and a point of entry into influencing the system.

***Producer/processors you could help them scale up but cost is highDistributors Regulation STORY OF SEASONALITY and PEACHESRFP process and the Directive yes and timeThe Nutrition Manager!Because they have:Direct influence on procurementPoint of purchase is high leverage (They are the customer!)High point of leverage, not a lot of frictionEngagement is easy lets look at why (pains, gains NEXT)They are a relatively low-friction point of entry from which to influence the rest of the system

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Key Influencer: The Nutrition Manager

Set menus.Purchasing.Stay on budget.Do more with lessTakes pride in her work.Bound by BPS Directive.

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#So heres Kathy from a hospital in Sudbury Ontario. Low frictionInfluence on purchsKathys job is to[list]

The BPS Directive sets out that institutional buyers like Kathy must obtaining the best value for public money.

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budgets and resources. Always asked to do more with less.Gains: Pride in their workJobs: Provide nourishing food to patients, students, and community members while staying on budget.

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Mental Models

We make public dollars work for the public good.

ESPOUSED THEORY

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#So the espoused theory prevalent among nutrition managers is that:

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Mental Models

We take the best value we can get with the dollars we have.

THEORY IN USE

We make public dollars work for the public good.

ESPOUSED THEORY

gap

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Adjust mental model to fit reality. 24

Limited time.Limited resources.Limited buy-in.Aversion to risk.

Im not sure where to start.Im on contract I cant.

DELAYS!

Why the gap?

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Why this reality?Its a system problem even if they do try to get BEST VALUE - the evidence of efforts is delayed!

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Some foresight is needed to get here:futureImpact

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Meadows: In any system where there are delays, some foresight is needed.

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The Public Purse Procurement (3P) Mentorship Program

3P Mentorship Program

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#A community of practice committed to understanding the impacts of their purchasing and leveraging the potential to create value in the food system through their purchasing.

4 different institutions in 4 citiesEach institution was represented by a nutrition manager in one case a sustsianability manager who had some influence over purchasingEveryone applied to the programStarted to track foodAnd set goals to increase procurement that would create value rather than to claim value in the systemOur funders major measure of success was $ spent on local food, which contribute to economic dev in Ontario. And we did that [CLICK}But my own measures were softer and harder to measure, related to level of engagement - paradigm and culture shifts within the participating institutions [CLICK}

Share some principles of the program and what we did.27

The Public Purse Procurement (3P) Mentorship Program

3P Mentorship Program

14% cost neutral increase in local purchasesfrom baseline

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#A community of practice committed to understanding the impacts of their purchasing and leveraging the potential to create value in the food system through their purchasing.

4 different institutions in 4 citiesEach institution was represented by a nutrition manager in one case a sustsianability manager who had some influence over purchasingEveryone applied to the programStarted to track foodAnd set goals to increase procurement that would create value rather than to claim value in the systemOur funders major measure of success was $ spent on local food, which contribute to economic dev in Ontario. And we did that [CLICK}But my own measures were softer and harder to measure, related to level of engagement - paradigm and culture shifts within the participating institutions [CLICK}

Share some principles of the program and what we did.28

Impact Measures of the 3P Program

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#More early measures of success29

PRINCIPLE 1: DISRUPT DISCRETELYWork with a high leverage, minimally disruptive point of intervention. We are farther along than wed ever be without this program We may not have done any of it at all this year. Lindsay, Humber College

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Disrupt discretely:Institutions are risk adverse. Work with a high leverage, minimally disruptive intervention. The nutrition manager at the point of purchase as the point of entry into the broader institution. We couldnt have gotten more senior staff in the program, but we could get them to sign off on the participation of the nutrition managers.Critical also that it not be a big imposition in their lives. Work incrementally.Anchor the work to the institutions missions.So we werent asking them to do anything radical. Lindsays quote illustrates how this tiny intervention just convening people and asking them questions was the difference between doing something and nothing at all. Do:Chose institutions that were ready, through an application process (4 of 10 chosen). They had an inherent sense that public money should be used to maximize the public good + they were all willing to make the effort to try.

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PRINCIPLE 2: COLLABORATE ACROSS DIFFERENCELeverage buyers who purchase with similar missions and processes. and that we are not alone. - Joli[I learned] that other institutions are really looking and changing the way their supply chain is structured -

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Collaborate along difference:Unite and leverage buyers who purchase with similar missions, values, and processes. Leverage their collective buying power to influence the goals of the system.

DO:They had never met but they were all buying from and talking to the same distributors. So the distributors knew them well, but they didnt know each other. And we suspected they had a lot to learn from each others experiences. And they did. Twe hosted calls and just sat there while they solved their own problems.

Create an in-group feeling of belonging to build trust and encourage learning and experiments. Mitigate aversion to risk by normalizing experiments.

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PRINCIPLE 3: JUST ASK!Encourage the flow of information to cultivate an appreciation of complexity.A strong and attainable goal emerged: lets keep digging to get clear reporting of all foods procured. - Kathy, HSN

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Just ask! Encourage the flow of information. Encourage the flow of information to restore missing feedback loops. Help cohort members to embrace complexity and cultivate a systems understanding. Missing information is one of the most common causes of system malfunction. (Meadows #6, p.13)Start tracking. Examine the externalized costs of purchasing from a cheap food system: to society, to costs to health care; to loss of arable land and knowledge. Make them acknowledge these feedback loops that are missing. Track and compare results with each other; get distributors to report on the invoices; let the system reveal itself through inquiry.

Cultivate an appreciation of complexity.Let questions be the guide. Value curiosity and reflexivity > expertise.Encourage systems thinking; success is bound up in the success of peers.

WHAT WERE DOING:IF THIS SOUP COULD TALK, WHAT WOULD IT SAY?START BY TRACKING FOODS, UNDERSTAND WHERE THEIR FOOD IS COMING FROMASK HARD QUESTIONS

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The most common way people give up their power is by thinking they don't have any. Alice Walker

PRINCIPLE 4: CHALLENGE ASSUMPTIONSReimagine roles and question paradigms to reimagine the system. - Your distributor does that for you?Yes, Im the client!

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Challenge assumptions: Reimagine roles to reimagine the system. Paradigms are the source of systems The process of paradigm change All it takes is a click of the mind, a falling of scales from the eyes, a new way of seeing. How to do this? Keep pointing at the anomalies and failure in the old paradigm. You keep speaking and acting, loudly and with assurance, from the new one. You insert people with the new paradigm in places of public visibility and power. You dont waste time with reactionaries, rather, you work with active change agents and with the vast middle ground of people who are open minded (Meadows, p.164). We needed the mixed cohort to enable this. IMAGINATIONDifferent institutions, different experiences, but with the same system a chance to see the same old system through new eyes.Paradigms of nutrition managers giving rise to the structure of the system, and thus the behaviour of the system (i.e. institutions as price-takers. Remember they are the customer. Supply drives demand or demand drives supply?) The easiest way to lose power is to think you never have it. This then feeds into the mental model that . ; AND expand the notion of best value. The buyer is the client. These are people used to doing their job a certain way for 10-20 years.The current way is not the only way what else can they do within the context of the rules theyre playing with. What facts are food safety policies actually based on? How can the RFP be used?Explore stories.Challenge meat safety. And if I am quite candid, the role of facilitating this community of practice required me to transcend some of the paradigms I held myself to let go of the idea that there were good guys and bad guys in the system and that is constant work for the very furious person inside of me but now I am just at a place where there are good guys the ones with their eyes open, and the blind guys the ones who are going to take a bit more work to see the light.

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PRINCIPLE 5: NURTURE THE DESIRE TO LEARNEncourage self-organizing within the cohort.

We are this years mentees, but next year we can be the mentors.

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Nurture the desire to learn: Design thinking and adult education have a common understanding that adults are not inclined to learn something of which they cannot see the point on the basis of their own life situation (Illeris, 167) learning needs to be designed from the perspective of the learner. Disrupt within the comfort zone. Choose institutions to participate based on readiness at the individual and institutional level (i.e. sr. mgr letters) and push them by asking questions, not providing direction, except in tracking and reporting. Use a developmental evaluation approach to tracking progress. Full participation is the goal. We really werent trying to change the parametres (i.e. setting guides for how much local food to buy, because we were really going after a higher order leverage point, as Meadows would describe affecting paradigms.) (Meadows on leverages, p. 6.) Go for deep, slow, lasting change at the human level not change parametres or infrastructure, but the humans. Reclaim power: Encourage self-organizing within the cohort. The ability to self organize is the strongest form of resilience in a system. Embed feedback loops within the program delivery (always checking in with them.) Value experience, sharing stories; not expertise there is not a best way yet (because none of the ways are any good!) right now were encouraging experimentation in what the mentees do and in how they come together. Make it accessible. It was free to the institutions.

Encourage self-organizing within the cohort. We wont tell them what to do they tell us. Setting institutional goals.Setting the learning curriculum.Essential for its survival. Still working on this!

Take the long view: See the forest for the trees. Address the delays in the system. Design for sustainable, incremental change. Encourage self organizing. Do that by building a CoP of people who are commited to purchasing with some foresight to the impacts of their purchasing. See how success of one is tied up in success of others (i.e. if you ask your distributors to report you are helping to create a new norm.)The ability to self organize is the strongest form of resilience in a system.

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@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#Ultimately we created a way for the nutrition manager to meaningfully engage with the gap in their mental models, and find a CoP through which to act on bridging that gap Then they were able to decide for themselves what they wanted to do in terms of building or reconfuguring the relationships around them and they all did different things and saw changes in the stakeholders around them.

WRAP UP in Conclusin there are 3 system implications for this work, which I am thinking about as I plan for a second cohort.

WRAP UP in Conclusion, there are three system implications of this work35

A Resilient Community of Practice

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#I believe public institutions ought to be AND want to leveraging their public dollars and public missions to create value in the food system.How can we best enable institutions to self-organize and re-claim their power, in a food system that is so often dictating to them?

I think the big win with cohort 1 was the knowledge transfer between the mentees now how do we sustain and scale this kind of networked, systemic thinking?36

Expansive Notion of Value & a Diverse Pool of Suppliers

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#How can we best support public purchasers to continue to expand their notion of value so that they are able to diversify37

Empowering Feedback for Policy Change

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#So for example, when the RFP process has the perverse effect of making the playing field LESS level, rather than more level, what feedback mechanisms are there to help government and regulation adapt?

Ultimately, some macro level policy will be require to get from. NEXT SLIDE

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PEACH EXAMPLEPROVINCIAL MEAT38

From Claiming Value from the Chain

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#A place where institutions are claiming value from a very extractive, un-resilient food supply chain, to NEXT SLIDE39

ToCreating Value in a Constellation

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#To a place where the engaged, systems-oriented purchasing of public institutions, using the curatorial powers of their RFPs among other tools, to actually CREATE value in the constellation.

If time VG MEATS Story, Peach Story.

THANK YOU.

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Thank [email protected]

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#

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AcknowledgementsScott BakerRobin NewmanEugene KimCaitlin ColsonAdeline CohenLars Boggild Leah PollockTim NashAnil PatelTerry LapalmeJan RossDeb HalmoArlene SilversteinMike SchausKim PeterIlana Ben-AriDave KranenbergErica LemieuxCassie WeverThe VanGroningens

Infinite gratitude to CHERYL HSU for the design, illustrations, and support. dsdsdThank you also to my professors: PETER JONES, JEREMY BOWES (OCAD) and JENNIFER SUMNER (UofT).

This case study is possible because of Wendy Smiths willingness to take risks with me and due to the hard work, foresight, and drive of the first cohort of the 3P Mentorship Program: Kathy, Lindsay, Joli, Barb, and Don. Thank you also to the Greenbelt Fund and Tania Del Matto. dsdsdThanks for the big ideas: Donella Meadows, Richard Normann and Rafael Ramirez.

I am very grateful for the feedback and support of my friends, colleagues, and family:

@hayleylapalmePublic Sector Purchasers as Value Creators in a Resilient Food System#

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