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Roman Empire. Chapter 10 & 11. Geography. Italy is covered in two mountain ranges, the Alps & the Apennines. The difficulty of crossing the mountains forced many cities to settle on rivers (Tiber River) for trade & fresh water . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Roman Empire

Roman EmpireChapter 10 & 11

AeneasRomans believed that their early culture came from Aeneas, a Trojan leader. Aeneid, epic poem written by Virgil, tells about Aeneas trip to Italy after the destruction of Troy.In order to form an alliance & later become ruler he married the daughter of the Latin king.

Romulus & RemusRomulus & Remus were the twin brothers raised by a wolf & later adopted by a shepherd. As they planned the city Remus mocked an idea of Romulus. In anger, Romulus killed Remus & named the city after himself, Rome.

Republican Government2 Consuls (Rulers of Rome)

Senate (Representative body for patricians)

Tribal Assembly (Representative body for plebeians)The Twelve Tables, 450 BCEProviding political and socialrights for the plebeians.

Patricians vs. Plebeians PatriciansWealthy powerful citizens.NoblesSmall minority of the populationOnce controlled all aspects of governmentAfter 218 B.C., not allowed to participate in trade or commercePlebeiansCommon peoplePeasants, crafts-people, traders, other workersMajority of populationGained right to participate in the governmentOnly Romans who could be traders, so many became wealthyRoman vs. U.S. governmentMagistrates were elected officials (consuls). They were elected each year to rule the city, lead the army, & judge court cases. There were always 2 consulsA president is elected every four years. He runs the government as a representative of the people. He leads the armed forces. Only 1 president at a time.

SenateRoman Senate was a council of wealthy & powerful Romans that advised the citys leaders (consuls)Served for lifeOriginally the Senate was made up of patricians, but over time plebeians became the majority.

U.S. Senate are representatives of the states often wealthy & powerful.6 year term, no term limit.

Assemblies/Tribunes & House of RepresentativesAssemblies/TribunesRepresented the common people, they had the ability elected magistrates, veto laws, & declare wars. Tribunes served for one year.House of RepresentativesRepresented the common people, had the ability to pass laws & declare war.Representatives serve two year terms.

Roman & U.S. governmentChecks & BalancesBoth governments believed in checks & balances the idea that no one part of the government should have complete control.Allows other branches to limit the power of each other branch.

Rome was ruled by a Triumvirate (a group of three men)

Pompey-a great politician & Caesars son-in-law

Caesar-the famous general

Crassus-the wealthiest man in Rome

In 53 B.C. Crassus dies

This ends the First Triumvirate and sets Pompey and Caesar against one another.

Julius Caesar: IntroductionTheir fears seem to be valid when Caesar refuses to enter Rome as an ordinary citizen after the war.Instead, he marches his army on Rome and takes over the government.

15Julius Caesar: Introduction

But the people dont mindin fact, they love him.Caesar is made dictator for life.

16Julius Caesar gained support of the people by:Spending money for public entertainmentEstablishing laws that freed farmers and tradesmen from heavy taxesPromising to improve the overall economySuggesting new laws, most of which were approved by the Senate. Reorganizing the army. Improving the way the provinces were governed.Caesar was an ambitious leaderJulius Caesar ruled 50 BC to 44 BCConquers Rome by bringing his army to Rome & executing his former allies.Caesar reduced the power of the Senate.Ides of March (March 15, 44BC) the Senators attacked & stabbed him to death.

Control of the Mediterranean worldReasons for Romes expansionControl hostile neighbors ResourcesSome emperors liked to fight

Pantheon

Coliseum

Language & LawLatin words are common in science & legal terms.Civil law a legal system based on written codes of law.This system of law spread around the world with the Roman Empire.

Destruction of JerusalemAs Rome conquered they accepted the Gods of the other religions as not to offend their subjects.Some Romans believed that the Jews were insulting their gods by just having one.The Jews rebelled twice so Rome destroyed Jerusalem.

ChristianityInitially a small religion persecuted like Judaism, but both were monotheistic religions.Early Christians were executed or put into the Roman games.As Christianity grew it spread through Rome & became the major religion of the empire.

Beginning of the endThe Roman Empire was divided, which created the Eastern Roman Empire & the Western Roman Empire.Emperor Diocletian to divide the empire do to internal & external problems. The empire was seen to be to big for one person.Emperor Constantine came to power & moved the capital east to modern day Turkey. His new capital was called Constantinople (Istanbul).

Destruction of RomeLate 300s Huns (central Asia) invaded Europe.This invasion moved the Goths (France) south towards the Roman EmpireRome paid the Goths to fight for them, but Rome stopped paying. The Goths sacked, destroyed, Rome 410 AD.

Factors to Romes fallEmpire became to large & was attacked by barbarians.Corruption the decay of peoples values. Bribes & threats used to achieve goals.Wealthy citizens left

Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)As Rome crumbled the eastern empire grew in wealth & power.Greek was studied. Christianity: priests can marry, services in Greek not Latin. Formed the Eastern Orthodox Church.1453 the Eastern Roman Empire fell to the Ottoman Turks, after a 1,000 year history.