the roman empire introduction to the roman empire
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The Roman EmpireIntroduction to the Roman Empire
Introduction500 BC, Rome just a small town in Italy
133 BC, Rome controlled all of Italy and many foreign lands.Spain, Greece, Macedonia, Turkey, North Africa
Roman Empire quickly spread to Europe
Reasons for SuccessRome was located in the centre of the Mediterranean world. This made it easy for its army and navy to move quickly in any direction.
Reasons For SuccessSoldiers were courageous and well trained, and battles were carefully planned ahead of time by able generals.
Romans had the ability to make friends out of their defeated enemies. Eventually conquered people accepted the Roman rule and the peace that it bought.
Rise and Fall of Rome: OverviewVideo: Legacy of the Roman Empire
The Roman Empire: ItalyItaly is shaped like a high-heeled bootHas islands with largest being SicilyItaly is a peninsula that extends from Southern Europe to the Mediterranean Sea
The Roman Empire: ItalyItaly is hilly and mountainousThe Alps separate Italy from Europe, Apennines run the length of the peninsulaMountains encouraged independent states in Ancient Italy
The Roman Empire: ItalyItaly has great farmlandMost population found in Italys plainsRome found halfway up Rome is built of hills along the Tiber River which protects it from floods and enemiesGood for farming, freshwater, transportation, and an outlet to the sea
VocabularyCity State: city that is also a nation or country
Veto: the power to reject proposals and acts, to cancel someones decision
Twelve tables: Laws that gave common people protection against unfair decisions by patrician judges
Punic wars: the three wars Rome fought with Carthage
VocabularyDictator: absolute ruler of Rome, rules over all the citizens and slaves
Carthage: in North Africa. Carthage and Rome fought three wars to control all trade on the Mediterranean
VocabularyFirst TriumvirateThe three most powerful leaders formed an alliance to govern the country (empire) together (share the power). Crassus, Caesar, and Pompey; each person would be in complete control of a specific portion of the empire. Caesar got the west, Pompey got the centre (Italy), and Crassus the east. They were not allowed to travel into the other leaders area.
VocabularySecond Triumvirate:Three of Caesars supporters who joined forces against Caesars murderers.
Romes Social ClassIn some republics the people had the power to elect the leader.Only certain classes could voteThree classesPatriciansPlebeiansSlaves (not Romans and couldnt vote)
The Roman Republic500 B.C., Romans drove out Etruscan rulers and established a RepublicNot a democracy like Athens, leaders all patricians (the wealthy)Consuls ran government and armyConsuls hold office for a year and little chance of gaining powerTwo consuls kept each other in check with power to veto
The Roman Republic300 patricians in the senateResponsible for making tough decisionsCommon people had no say in decisionsUnder Roman law common people could not be in government or marry patriciansFight for equality would last nearly 200 years
The Roman RepublicEarly on plebeians said they would not fight in the army unless they got say in governmentNot good because of ongoing wars with ItalyPatricians let plebeians have an assembly and elect 10 people who could argue with consulsThese were called Tribunes.Done to avoid civil war
The Roman Republic451 B.C., patricians let plebeians write the Twelve TablesA set of laws to protect plebeians from unfair patrician judgesNext two centuries plebeian position improvesAllowed to marry patricians, hold office for consul, make laws for all, and become members of the SenateEnslavement for debt outlawed287 B.C., equality although patricians still made up the nobility and held highest positions
Decision MakingDecisions made on a personal levelCitizens chose a town elderElder able to ask citizens for advice to make his decisionsDecisions often favoured patricians at expense of plebeiansThis strained the relationship between patricians and plebeiansPatricians did not care about things that would benefit plebeians