the middle ages. the roman empire post-roman empire
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The Middle AgesThe Roman Empire
Europe Post-Roman Empire IN THE EASTByzantine Empire (330 AD 1453 AD)Considered themselves as a continuation of RomeFocused control in the eastern MediterraneanEmphasis on trade great wealth What was their trade advantage?Justinian I (527 565 AD)Created Justinian CodeSet of thousands of laws built upon the Roman traditionInfluenced much of modern law todayMerit based government What does this mean?People were promoted based upon skill Why is this better?Wife TheodoraInfluential in bringing fairness to women and non-Orthodox ChristiansEurope Post-Roman Empire IN THE EASTRift in the ChurchMany in Eastern Europe remained literate and practiced Orthodox ChristianityOrthodox officially accepted based upon Gospels, other writingsMany in Western Europe were illiterate and varied in their practice of ChristianityConflict arises over use of iconsIcons holy pictures of Jesus and the saintsMany in the East thought icons went against the 10 commandmentsCommandment against false idols - click hereWhy might many people have liked to use icons?Conflict grows and results in split in Christian Church in 1054 into Eastern Orthodox and Roman CatholicConstantinople falls to the Muslim Ottomans in 1453Europe Post-Roman Empire IN THE WESTThe Middle Ages Usually measured from around 500 1500 AD - 1000 years a.k.a. Medieval PeriodGermanic invasions lead to:Disruption of TradeEconomic collapse Why is trade important to the economy?Downfall of CitiesCultural/Political collapseNo more central government or military protectionPopulation shiftsUrban to Rural Why?
Europe Post-Roman Empire IN THE WESTGermanic invasions lead to: (contd)Germans had no written languageLoss of scholarship, literacyLatin was no longer a common languageEastern Roman Empire (Byzantines) preferred GreekAs people went rural, dialects formed What is a dialect?French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian developedGermanic KingdomsMuch smaller, decentralizedFranks, Goths, Vandals, etc.Franks adopt Christianity under Clovis Why?Rise of the influence of the ChurchWith no central power, the Church steps up into the power voidThe Church begins to become more political Is this good? Bad?
Middle Ages - CarolingiansMonastariesCenters of learning and cultureMonks remained literate, copied books by handFranks build a kingdomWith help from a Christian Church growing in power and influence What is the benefit of the Church as an ally?Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer)Expands Frankish (Carolingian) EmpireHolds off Muslim invaders Importance?Military GeniusFather of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages - CarolingiansCharlemagneCharles Martels grandsonExpanded empire to be largest in Europe at the timeDuring his reign, united most of Western Europe for the first time since the RomansPope Leo III crowned him Roman EmperorThe story says that the Pope did this as a surprise as Charlemagne knelt to pray What is the implication?Final strong ruler before feudalism
Leading Toward FeudalismTreaty of VerdunCharlemagnes grandsons split up the empire, leaving no central authority in Western EuropeA weaker Europe becomes more susceptible to invasion Who could invade?Vikings From the northScandinavian warrior explorers, skilled sailorsFirst Europeans to sail to North AmericaLeif Erikson set up settlement in NewfoundlandStayed for around 10 years
Leading Toward FeudalismMagyars From the EastNomadic HungariansPossible descendants of HunsSkilled horsemenMuslims From the South (Africa and Middle East)Growing empireJihad What does Jihad mean?Inner strugglealternate interpretation as outward struggle against non-believersInvading Vikings, Magyars, and MuslimsWhat would life be like in this environment?Created constant danger for EuropeansFar flung kings could not provide protection for a widespread people What could people do?People looked for local protection - FEUDALISM
Leading Toward Feudalism
Feudalism - StructureFeudalism existed as a way of protecting economic interestsKing grants land to a Noble as a sort of treatyNoble becomes Lord of the landLand grants were called fiefsLord could keep all of the land or grant portions of his land (fiefs) to Vassals and/or Knights as a second agreementKnights were military menManors, self sufficient farm villages, were lived on and worked on by servant peasants called serfsFor the right to farm the land, the serfs must give back much of what they grow
Life as a Feudal SerfResponsibilitiesRestrictionsRights/FreedomsFarming cropsRaising animalsGrain taxMarriage taxChurch taxTithe 1/10 of incomeObey the Lords rulesHousingProtectionFood
Cant leaveCant marry without permissionSimple dietSmall living spaceHarsh penalties for breaking rulesKnighthoodAround age 7 PageCastle servant, trained in fightingAround age 14 SquireA knights apprenticeAround age 21 KnightFull-fledgedChivalryLoyalty to:Feudal lordHeavenly lordChosen Lady
Art Inspired By KnighthoodEpic PoemsEx:BeowulfThe Song of RolandThe Legend of King Arthur (various)Love Poems and SongsBorn out of a knights devotion to his ladyTroubadours traveling poet-musicians
The Age of ChivalryThe Middle Ages were an era of constant fighting between nobles over land and wealthKnights fought for nobles in exchange for landMilitary advancements:SaddlesStirrupsBattering RamMangonelTrebuchetSiege Tower
The ChurchAll of Western Europe was Christian leading to a huge growth in the power of the ChurchCanon Law Church law covering religious practicesStructure of the Church:Pope Head of the ChurchBishops Regional leadersPriests Local authorityWhat can happen when someone has a lot of power?
The ChurchGermanic peoples united to create the Holy Roman Empire in 962Otto I defeats the invading Magyars and unites central Europe162 years after Charlemagne, Otto I is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope Why title it Holy Roman Empire when its a bunch of Germans?Not much of an empireLasted in some form until 1806The two main powers in the Middle Ages were the Church and the Empire Why doesnt the empire get rid of the Church?The Emperor was the head of government powerThe Pope was the head of religious powerOften the two would clashThe Emperor could attempt to appoint regional bishops and priests, infringing on Church powerThe Pope could excommunicate the Emperor, affecting the people of his reign
The CrusadesArmed pilgrimages of Christian EuropeansTo attack the holy land, Muslims, other non-Christians eventually, whatever they wantFirst Crusade began in 1095Christians gained control of the holy lands, only to lose them back to the Muslims shortly thereafterDifferent Crusades continued through the 1400sAt least 9 different crusades of varying size and successThe Crusades were probably just as much about power, influence, and wealth as they were about religionAlthough those participating DEFINITELY thought they were doing Gods will as did the Muslim defendersWho was right?
Development of EnglandMagna Carta - 1215English nobles revolted against King Johns ruleWeakened the throne Guaranteed certain basic rights:No taxation without representationTrial by juryProtection under law Sound familiar?Why would the King sign this?Parliament is formed in 1295 by King EdwardLegislative body to speak for the peopleCalled citizens, knights, bishops, and lords to serve True representation?Called any time a new tax was neededHouse of Lords, House of Commons
Development of FranceEstates-General is formed by King Philip IV in 1302Created to gather support in a dispute with the Catholic ChurchPrimary role was to advise the KingWhy does this make sense for the king?Made up of: --Guesses???--First Estate Church leaders Why were they the first estate?Second Estate NobilityThird Estate Commoners, mostly merchantsWhy is the Third Estate a big deal?Want to see some drama?Commercial RevolutionGrowth in agriculture and craftsmanship led to a growth in tradeMarkets and Fairs more travelInternational TradeEspecially regional sea trade Where?Rise of a wealthy merchant classBetween Nobles and PeasantsCredit, Checks, BorrowingAll became commonTransition from the manor back into the town/city
A Weakened ChurchCouncil of ConstanceNew Pope elected, others forced to resignThe Church loses a lot of momentumWhere will people turn?John Wycliffe thinker/reformerJesus is the authority, not the PopeJan Hus thinker/reformerThe Bible is the authority, not the PopeThe Church had no answer forTHE BLACK DEATH
Tell me about the Black Death At least 5 sentences.Bubonic PlagueCame to Europe from Asia through Italian merchant shipsEntered Europe in 1347, had spread throughout by 1351 How?Caused by bacteria Yersinia Pestis spread by fleas How?One Third of European population diedThis was the first, and most devastating, of many outbreaks of the plagueSeen by many as the end of the world, or as Gods punishmentWhy? Symptoms:Swollen lymph glands (buboes) in neck, armpit, and groin regionsBlackening of flesh due to gangreneFeverVomiting bloodDeath within 2-7 daysHow did this lead to the weakening of the Church?TransmissionWhy did it spread so fast?
Carried in the bloodstream of rodents in central AsiaOften transmitted through fleasBuboes
The Black Death
The Modern Plague
Hundred Years WarWar between England and France over control of the French throne1337 1453Rise of the LongbowUp to 200 yard rangeFall of the Age of ChivalryKnights/Cavalry not as importantFrance eventually winsRise of nationalism
Why did Feudalism end?Here are some reasonsWeakening of the ChurchCommercial Revolution and rise of the merchant classCreated a middle class, disrupting the structure of loyaltiesThe Black DeathWith fewe