roman empire and roman religions
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The Roman Empireand thePax Romana
Octavian/Augustus31BCE 14CEBecame the dictator over Rome with supreme power over everything after his defeat of Marc Antony. The Senate dubbed him Augustus or Exalted One and declared him princeps (First Citizen). He ruled Rome for 44 years. He was Romes first emperor.
Augustus CaesarAugustus Caesar established the Roman Empire as he laid out the foundation for a stable government:Civil service (to enforce laws)High level jobs were open to men of talent (not social class)Rule by lawA common coinage (easier trade)Secure travel and trade throughout the Empire.Allegiance of cities/provinces by allowing a large measure of self-government
Augustus CaesarWe saw what Augustus accomplished, so what did he fail to do?!?!?!?
Provide for the peaceful succession of Emperors
Romans did not accept the idea of dynastic power (passing from father to son). This often led to intrigue and violence after the death of an emperor.
Not all successors were great rulers. In fact, the empire had several very weak and incompetent leaders. However, a few good leaders did stand out:Hadrian codified Roman law, wall across Britain to hold back attackersMarcus Aurelius Considered a philosopher-king
The Roman report There were a lot of Roman Emperors constantly trying to take power. http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=2kRwJJwxGZEhttp://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=AC0uRHgB7xg
Hadrians WallRoman Emperor Hadrian had Roman soldiers build a wall across Britain to keep invaders out. Because of wet conditions and lack of oxygen in the soil, many items were left intact. (leather, tablets, clothing, tents, boots)
Pax Romana = Roman PeaceThe Roman Empire enjoyed 200 years of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana under imperial rule beginning with Augustus and ending with Marcus Aurelius.
Roman Empire stretched from the Euphrates River in the east to Britain in the west. This area was about the size of the United States.
Pax RomanaDuring this time, The Roman Empire brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to lands under imperial ruleThe Empire expanded and solidified, particularly in the Near East (Palestine/Jerusalem)
Economic ImpactEstablished uniform system of money, which helped to expand trade throughout the empire. Safe travel and trade was guaranteed on Roman roads which were built and protected by Roman legions.During this time, the empire was prosperous and stable.
Social & Political ImpactsSOCIALReturned stability to social classes after years of civil warIncreased emphasis on the family.POLITICALCreation of a civil service (government workers) which stretched across the empire.Developed a uniform rule of law after a merger of civil law and the Law of Nations.
Quick CheckWhat were the economic impacts of the 200 years of Peace?Expanded trade, uniform system of money, safe travelsExpanded trade, increased slave power, tax increasesExpanded trade, uniform system of money, Plebeians revoltExpanded trade, increased treasury from wars, uniform system of moneyWhat is the name for the 200 years of peace in Rome?Peace PactPax RomanaTempus FigitPax Caesaria
Early Roman ReligionRoman mythology, like Greek mythology, was based upon a polytheistic religion that was central to culture, politics, and art. Symbols and images found in literature, art and architecture!
~Based on Greek Polytheistic religion~
Explained natural phenomena (thunder, earthquakes, floods), human characteristics (jealousy, anger, love), and life events (marriage, birth, death, war)
Jupiter (Greek - Zeus)King of the godsGod of thunder and lightningUses Thunderbolts as his weaponWomanizer married his own sisterMost powerful
Jupiter is so named because it is so big it is the King of PlanetsMusic is Gustav Holsts Jupiter, Bringer of Jollity
*Some Lovers of Zeus CALLISTO forest nymph, gave birth to Arcas. Zeus changed her into a bear to hide her from Hera. She was accidentally shot by her friend, Artemis. Zeus placed her in the sky as a constellation (Ursa Major)
EUROPA Zeus came in the shape of a bull
ANTIOPE daughter of a river god. Zeus came in the form of a satyr
DANAE Zeus came in the form of a golden rain shower, gave birth to Perseus
SEMELE gave birht to Dionysus Hera tricked her to ask to see Zeus in all his glory. It fried her.
Hercules mom he came in the shape of her husband
Ledo came in the form of a swam
Juno (Greek - Hera)Queen of the godsGoddess of marriage and jealousyWife/sister of JupiterThe peacock and geese are symbols
No planet, but there is an asteroid named after her plus a city in Alaska
Venus (Aphrodite Greek)Goddess of beauty and loveMother of Cupid (Eros)
Venus is so named because it is the brightest and most easily seen planet Gustav Holsts Venus, Bringer of Peace
*Caught by Hepheastus with Ares. Everyone laughed at Hephaetus
Loved Adonis but had to share him with Persephone
Had a son with Hermes named Hermaphroditos he was loved by a water nymph but he did not return her attentions. When he bathed in some waters, she merged with him to be with him forever. The result was a female boy.
Minerva (Athena -Greek)Goddess of battle, wisdom and the homeDaughter of Jupiter and Titan she popped out of his head after he swallowed the pregnant Titan
Minerva was a tiny robot designed by the Japanese to land on an asteroid, but got lost in space.
Apollo (Apollo - Greek)God of music, poetry, prophesy, truth, light, medicine, healing and archerySun God in some myths (drive his chariot with the sun across the sky)Son of Jupiter and Leto
Apollo asteroids are near-earth asteroids
*His mom, Leto, is a titan (daughter of Coeus and Phoebe) and worshipped by the Greeks. Hera sent a giant serpent to kill her for sleeping with Zeus, but she got away.
Apollo defeated a python at Delphi in order to claim the oracle.
Diana (Artemis Greek)Apollos Twin sisterGoddess of the hunt and wild thingsMoon Goddess
The Artemis navigation satellite
Neptune (Poseidon-Greek)God of the Sea and earthquakesTrident is weaponJupiters brotherConsidered 2nd most powerful
Neptune is so named because the blue looks like waterMusic is Gustav Holsts Neptune, the Mystic
Pluto (Hades Greek)God of the Underworld and WealthKing of the dead but he is not DeathJupiters brotherHas a helmet that makes the wearer invisiblePersephone (Spring) is his wifeNOT EVIL! (but he is unpitying)Considered 3rd most powerful
Mars (Ares Greek)God of War and SpringSon of Jupiter and JunoThe Romans glorify him, but the Greeks make him out to be a cowardHe has three children with Venus: Phobos (panic) and Deimos (fear) are twins
Mars and its moons, Phobos and DeimosGustav Holsts Mars, Bringer of War
Cupid (Eros Greek)God of loveSon of Mars and VenusOften portrayed as a child, but not always. He has wings Uses a bow and arrow arrows cause one to fall in love
Eros is a near earth asteroid
*Anteros is his brother (several Erotes all look pretty much alike) He has long hair and butterfly wings and is the avenger of love scorned
Quick CheckMatch them upJupiterA. God of the Underworld JunoB. God of the SeaDianaC. God of ThunderApolloD. Goddess of MarriageNeptuneE. Goddess of the HuntVenusF. God of music, prophesyMinervaG. Goddess of battlePlutoH. Goddess of love
ChristianityThe followers of Jesus Christ spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire, bringing it into conflict with Roman polytheism and eventually changing Western civilization. Interesting tidbit: SYMBOL - Greek Word for fish: ichthys. These initials represent the expression: Jesus Christ, the Son of God, Savior. In Greek, Iesous Christos theou hyios soter.
The GospelsThe New Testament, contains accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus, as well as writings of early Christians. The story of the life of Jesus is mostly contained in the first four books (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) aka The Gospels written long after Jesus had died.
Christian OriginsFollowing Jesus death, the apostles spread Jesus message and established Christian communities.First only taught among the Jews of Judea.Christianity had its roots in JudaismFor a time, Christianity remained a sect of JudaismWas led by Jesus of Nazareth, who was proclaimed the Messiah (Anointed One)Conflicted with polytheistic beliefs of Roman Empire.
Spread of ChristianityCarried by the Apostles person sent forth (followers of Jesus) throughout the Roman Empire. It is believed that Peter established Christianity in RomeThe most famous Apostle was PaulHad never seen Jesus and actually persecuted Christians; He had a vision and convertedHe spread the teachings of Jesus beyond Jewish communities to gentiles (non-Jews).
Consequently, the spread of Christianity was slowed by this persecution.http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=cOc60Mvvc7kRomes tolerant attitude toward religion did not extend to Christianity. Officials believed Christians to be disloyal as they did not make sacrifices to the emperor and honor the Roman Gods.
PersecutionWhen Christians met in secret to avoid persecution, rumors spread they were engaged in evil practices.Roman rulers like Nero used Christians as scapegoats blaming them