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  • 1. Moving Toward Empire In this lesson, students will be able to identify various factors which led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. Students will be able to identify and/or define the following terms: Punic Wars Empire Pax RomanaE. Napp

2. The Romans were successful conquerors. They copied the battle tactics of the Greeks and Macedonians.E. Napp 3. Roman Conquerors The Romans split their legions into smaller, highly mobile forces of 100 men called centuries. They allowed some conquered people to govern themselves while granting limited citizenship to others.E. Napp 4. Fun Fact Roman soldiers wore sandals, with iron studs on the leather soles. Hard-wearing, but easy to slip when running on wet stones!E. Napp 5. The Punic Wars In 264 B.C., Rome came into conflict with another great Mediterranean power-the Phoenician city of Carthage in North Africa. In three Punic Wars, Rome struggled with Carthage for control of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Ultimately, Rome destroyed Carthage.E. Napp 6. During the second Punic War, the great Carthaginian general, Hannibal, attacked Rome from the North.E. Napp 7. Initially, Hannibal experienced military success. However, he could not conquer the Italian peninsula.E. Napp 8. Hannibal even used elephants in his military campaign.E. Napp 9. A Total Defeat Ultimately, Rome destroyed Carthage. The Roman army ruined the land of Carthage and sold its surviving people into slavery. The Romans became kings of the Mediterranean Sea.E. Napp 10. E. Napp 11. As the Roman army experienced greater success, Roman generals became increasingly powerful and popular. Generals, like Julius Caesar, wanted more power. E. Napp 12. The End of the Republic As generals became increasingly powerful, Rome ceased to be a republic and became an empire. An empire is a state that rules over different cultures. Eventually, an emperor ruled Rome.E. Napp 13. Julius Caesar threatened to seize power and become a dictator. However, Senators assassinated him in 44 B.C.E. Napp 14. E. NappWhenever the bones of Capys shall be discovered, it will come to pass that a descendant of his shall be slain at the hands of his kindred, and presently avenged at heavy cost to Italy. 15. Augustus CaesarEventually, Caesars adopted son, Octavian, became the first Roman emperor. He was called Augustus Caesar and his rule began a long period of peace in the Roman Empire known as the Pax Romana or Roman Peace. 16. Questions for Reflection: Why was the Roman army successful? What were the Punic Wars? How did Rome treat Carthage after its victory? Who was Julius Caesar and what did he do? Why did Rome become an empire? Who was Augustus Caesar and what was the Pax Romana?E. Napp