Paleolithic Age Paleolithic Era – Old Stone Age (~2.6 million years ago – ~10,000 BCE) – Hunter/Gatherer societies Nomadic – Moved from place to place.
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Paleolithic AgePaleolithic Era Old Stone Age (~2.6 million years ago ~10,000 BCE)Hunter/Gatherer societiesNomadic Moved from place to place in search for food. Humans populated the world this wayMen huntedWomen gathered fruits, nuts, grains, etc.Way of LifeCave paintingsStone tools and potteryDomesticated dogs
Neolithic Era New Stone Age (~10,000 BCE - ~3,000 BCE)Farming Neolithic RevolutionPeople could remain in one placeHerding of animals goats, sheep, & cattleCommunityCouncil of Elders/Chief made important decisionsWarrior class needed to protect landKept possessionsNeolithic Age
CausesFood-gathering women notice seeds grow into new plantsFood-gathering women notice that thinning results in stronger plantsGame animals become scarceAgriculture BeginsImmediate EffectsAbandon nomadic way of life and settle in villagesAcquire more possessionsDevelop new technologiesDevelop calendars Long-Term Effect/Immediate CauseGrowth in populationImmediate EffectsMore interaction among communitiesIncreased warfareLong-Term EffectsWomen lose statusNeolithic Revolution - FarmingCauses and Effects
atalhykThe largest and best preserved Neolithic settlement found to dateExisted from ~7500 BCE to ~5700 BCENeolithic RevolutionRevolution in Agriculture = domestication of plants and animalsThe first permanent human settlements emergedStone tools were still used by became polished and made sharper by grindingPottery first began to appear
Fertile CrescentEnd of the Last Ice AgeWarming ClimateWild grasses abundantWild Grasses closest to domesticated varietiesTigris and Euphrates Rivers
The area around these rivers is known to history as Mesopotamia
How did Agriculture DevelopAvailability of calories determines how people get foodEnd of ice age Plants thrivingHumans began helping plants along and selecting for traits, to increase calories gatheredCertain plants were abundant and provided many calories=Humans actively chose theseWheat
Where and When
LocationDates (B.C.E)PlantsAnimalsSouthwest Asia (Fertile Crescent)9000-7000Barley, wheat, lentils, figsGoats, sheep, cattle, pigsChina 6500-5000Rice, millet, soybeansPigs, chickens, water buffaloSaharan and Sub-Saharan Africa3000-2000Sorghum, millet, yams, teffCattle (perhaps 8000 B.C.E)Highland New Guinea7000-4000Taro, bananas, yams, sugarcaneAndes region3000-2000Potatoes, quinoa, maniocLlamas, alpaca, guinea pigMesoamerica3000-2000Maize, squash (perhaps 7000 B.C.E), beansTurkeyEastern woodlands of North America2000-1000Sunflower, goosefoot, sumpweed
Origins of Agriculture
A sedentary lifestyleThe need for cooperation and group effortJob specialization Social Hierarchies (Social classes)Patriarchy (Rule by males)Population Growth
What does the Neolithic Revolution allow?
Results for Agricultural SocietyNow that you have possessions, what do you have to do?Kings- to directMilitaries to protectPriests to protect and record (BUREAUCRATS)Scribes and writing to protect and keep accountsArtisans- make storage vessels (pottery)