historical periods in early history. terms prehistory paleolithic stone age neolithic stone age...
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Historical Periods in Early History
Historical Periods in Early HistoryTermsPrehistoryPaleolithic Stone AgeNeolithic Stone Age Bronze AgeIron Age
PrehistoryPrehistory refers to early human societies that did not leave written records.
This stage will occur at different times for different civilizationsPrehistoryDoes not mean that they had no significant change during these periodsDoes not mean that they had no technological innovationsSome cultures recorded their past in other ways.NeanderthalsLived 100 000- 40 000 years ago in Europe and Asia during the last ice ageThey were strong people, able to bench press 400 lb and wrestle large game to death
Neanderthal SocietyMales worked together to track and kill large gameHarsh live, based on a day to day survivalLikely males lived away from women and childrenNo permanent family relationshipsNeanderthal SocietyNo formal leadershipNo rules or laws that people were to followNo primitive religion known and if there was it had few ritualsNo moral code to guide lifeWhile they wore clothes, they were just wraps thrown over themselvesNeanderthal MenScavenged for food as much as they huntedHorses head excavated in many sitesNeanderthal WomenFemales and children spent more time close to the cave firePreparing plant foods they gathered Scraps brought to them by malesAll gathering done by women and children were critical to survivalSkeletons of NeanderthalsSkeletal remains show a difficult lifeMost children died in childbirth or the first dew years of life80% of Neanderthals died before age 40What happened to NeanderthalsThere is uncertainty as to why they died offDid the humans from africa, Homo sapiens sapiens invade and kill them off?Homo sapiens had better weapons and tools?Did they have superior intelligence?More than likely died off by killing, disease and displacementAssimilation? Homo sapiens sapiens hybridWhat has been discovered Quite recentlyThere is some Neanderthal genes in the human DNA in a significant amountFirst suggested offspring would not be viable as they had a 12 month pregnancy, now not so sureThere is now art work present to suggest they did have cultureTheir tools have been discovered to be more complex then first thought.Homo sapien sapien: The Great Leap Forward35 000 years ago something remarkable happened, known as the Great Leap ForwardInnovation and creativityTools made of thin stone blades SpearsNeedles to make clothesItems for preparing foodAxes for cutting woodMore InnovationBarbed harpoonsDartsThrowing spearsBows and arrowsWatercraftTrade Culture ??Paleolithic Age- Old Stone Age50 000- 10 000 Years Ago-social hierarchies, alliances, marriage, customs, religion, refined artistic beautyTradeSmall family groupsLeadership, social classesBetter hunting, lethal weaponsAbility to sew clothesAdapt to changes in environment
Paleolithic Society- WomenGathering of food was done by women and children accounting for 60-70 of the dietMade clothingNurtured the youngThe wisdom and story tellers were elder women
Paleolithic ArtCave paintingsSculpture
Neolithic Age-The New Stone AgeRefers to around 9000 BCGround and polished toolsAbandon nomadic life to begin farmingPlanting Crops, Domesticating animalsHumans can now control their food source
Neolithic FoodAnimals domesticated- cattle, sheep, goats, pigsSupplied meat, leather, and milk (Cheese and butter)Grains were grown. Two drinks enjoyed were mead and beerLate period, began metallurgy- copper made knives, cups, buckets, and potsNeolithic SocietyPermanent townsSpecialized in craftsHierarchical class systemAgriculture allowed them to develop art, music and sports,Religion7 Characteristics of a SocietyCentralized GovernmentAgricultural IntensificationSpecialized OccupationsClass StructureMerchants and TradesDevelopment of Science and WritingState ReligionBronze AgeBronze Age would be followed by the Iron Age but not alwaysMore broadly, the Bronze Age of any culture is the period during which the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) in that culture uses bronze.
Bronze AgeThis could either be based on the local smelting of copper and tin from ores, or trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Copper/tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in western Asia before 3000 BC. Many, though not all, Bronze Age cultures flourished in prehistory. Some cultures developed extensive written records during their Bronze Ages.Iron AgeThe Iron Age typically follows the Bronze age (But not always)Stage in the development of any people in which tools and weapons whose main ingredient was iron were prominent. The adoption of this material often coincided with other changes in society, including differing agricultural practices, religious beliefs and artistic styles.