NUOVE FORMULE NEI DISORDINI FUNZIONALI GASTROINTESTINALI Annamaria Staiano Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche Traslazionali Universit di Napoli Federico.

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  • NUOVE FORMULE NEI DISORDINI FUNZIONALI GASTROINTESTINALIAnnamaria Staiano Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche Traslazionali Universit di Napoli Federico II

  • NUOVE FORMULE NEI DISORDINI FUNZIONALI GASTROINTESTINALI (DFGIs)OUTLINEEpidemiologia DFGIs nel primo anno di vita

    Novit in campo di terapia dietetica Reflusso gastroesofageoColiche Stipsi

  • P.E. Hyman et al GASTROENTEROLOGY 2006;130:15191526

  • Average estimated prevalences from worldwide surveyPrevalence of common gastrointestinal symptoms in infants from birth to 12 months of age and their impact on future health outcomesY Vandenplas, M Bellaiche, M Benninga, JP Chouraqui, F okura, T Harb, B Hegar, C H Lifschitz, T Ludwig, M Miqdady, M B Morais, S Osatakul, R Shamir, A Staiano, H Szajewska, N Thapar, S SalvatoreJPGN 2015 in press

    RegionColic*RegurgitationConstipationGlobal (n=366)21%29%18%North America (n=38)14%32%26%South America (n=24)27%39%20%Caribbean (n=4)34%37%26%Italy20.5% (Iacono 2005)12% (Campanozzi 2009)6 months 14%12 months 11%(Turco 2014)

  • P.E. Hyman et al GASTROENTEROLOGY 2006;130:15191526

  • Si tratta di Disordini Funzionali GI o IPLV/APLV?

    About one third of infants fed standard formula in USA switch formula before 4 months of age. In Israel 50% of infants switch formulas at least once by 6 months of age (Lasekan JB 2011)

  • Depending on the awareness of healthcare professionals, these functional digestive symptoms may or may not be attributed to the ingestion of cows milk.

    If so, words such as allergy or intolerance are used interchangeably. However, there is a distinction between the terms.

    Intolerance, or hypersensitivity, relates to all reactions to foods, while an allergy indicates that an immune mechanism is involved and atopy is the terminology for immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated reactions. An allergy to cows milk is one of the most common food allergies in young children.Acta Paediatr. 2014 Dec 29Y Vandenplas, C Dupont, P Eigenmann, A Host, M Kuitunen, C Ribes-Koninck, N Shah, R Shamir, A Staiano, H Szajewska, A Von Berg

  • The Cow's Milk-related Symptom Score (CoMiSS), which considers general manifestations, dermatological, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, was developed as an awareness tool for cow's milk related symptoms. It can also be used to evaluate and quantify the evolution of symptoms during therapeutic interventions, but does not diagnose cow's milk protein allergy and does not replace a food challenge. Its usefulness needs to be evaluated by a prospective randomised study.

    Conclusion The CoMiSS provides primary healthcare clinicians with a simple, fast and easy-to-use awareness tool for cows milk related symptoms.Acta Paediatr. 2014 Dec 29Y Vandenplas, C Dupont, P Eigenmann, A Host, M Kuitunen, C Ribes-Koninck, N Shah, R Shamir, A Staiano, H Szajewska, A Von Berg

  • Vandenplas YStaiano A et al. Acta Paediatr. 2014 Dec 29Symptom-based clinical score

  • **A symptom-based score was developedRange: 0 33Arbitrary: score > 12 was postulated as = CMPA(at least: 2 symptoms severe or 2 organ systems involved

    Predictive of CMPA: A SBS of > 12 : selects infants at risk for CMPAIf elimination diet score < 6 PPV of challenge is 80 %SAGE Open Med 2014; 2: 2050312114523423

    Y Vandenplas, P Steenhout and D Grathwohl

  • Infant Regurgitation

  • Position paper che si propone di offrire semplici algoritmi e raccomandazioni per guidare la pratica quotidiana per la diagnosi e la gestione di alcuni disordini funzionali GI del primo anno di vita.

    Queste raccomandazioni sono state sviluppate da un gruppo di esperti, dopo una review aggiornata della letteratura.

    In assenza di dati disponibili, le raccomandazioni sono basate su opinioni di esperti.

    A consensus report on the management of frequent gastro-intestinal symptoms in infants: regurgitation, colic, constipation, diarrhoea and cows milk protein allergy.

    A Position paper of the ESPGHAN Gastroenterology Committee and additional experts.

    Vandenplas Y, Broekaert I, Falconer J, Gottrand F, Lionetti P, Orel R, Papadopoulou A, Ribes-Koninck C, Ruemmele FM, Schppi M, Thapar N, Wilschanski M; Benninga M, Guarino A, Lifschitz C, Salvatore S, Shamir R, Staiano A, Szajewska H JPGN 2015 Submitted

  • In the infant with troublesome and frequent regurgitation (more than four episodes a day), the management of regurgitation starts with reassurance of the parents providing information on the natural history of regurgitation, correct formula preparation if the infant is not breastfed and on how overfeeding may exacerbate the symptoms.

    In infantile regurgitation, thickened formula or anti-regurgitation formula decreases regurgitation Vandenplas Y. et al JPGN 2015 SubmittedA consensus report on the management of frequent gastro-intestinal symptoms in infants: regurgitation, colic, constipation, diarrhoea and cows milk protein allergy.

    A Position paper of the ESPGHAN Gastroenterology Committee and additional experts.

    Vandenplas Y, Broekaert I, Falconer J, Gottrand F, Lionetti P, Orel R, Papadopoulou A, Ribes-Koninck C, Ruemmele FM, Schppi M, Thapar N, Wilschanski M; Benninga M, Guarino A, Lifschitz C, Salvatore S, Shamir R, Staiano A, Szajewska H

  • The nutritional management of regurgitation consists of correcting the frequency and volume of the feeds if necessary

    The commercialized AR-formulae contain different thickening agents: processed rice, corn or potato starch, guar gum or locust bean gum.

    If commercial AR-formula is not available, a thickening product may be added to the standard formula.

    Home thickening of a regular formula always increases osmolarity, which may induce reflux and regurgitation by increasing the number of lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations, which may induce reflux and regurgitation A consensus report on the management of frequent gastro-intestinal symptoms in infants: regurgitation, colic, constipation, diarrhoea and cows milk protein allergy.

    A Position paper of the ESPGHAN Gastroenterology Committee and additional experts. Vandenplas Y. et al JPGN 2015 Submitted

  • Thickened feedings appear to decrease observed regurgitation rather than the actual number of reflux episodes.

    Excessive energy intake may occur with long-term use of feedings thickened with rice cereal or corn.

    To this point, it is important to realize that thickening a 20kcal/oz infant formula with 1 tablespoon of rice cereal per ounce increases the energy density to 34 kcal/oz.Lightdale JR et al. Pediatrics 2013;131:e1684e1695

  • Prevalence and Natural History of Infant RegurgitationA recent review on the relationship between reflux and symptoms supports the concept that, in infants, even symptoms such as excessive crying accompanying prominent regurgitation are often caused by gastric distension (dyspepsia, or possibly even functional heartburn) rather than esophagitis (heartburn).Pathophysiology of infant regurgitationOrenstein SR. Curr Gastroenterol Rep (2013) 15:353

  • Vandenplas Y, et al. Nutrition 29 (2013) 184194DYSPHAGIAHAEMATEMESISMELENARUMINATIONNAUSEA/BELCHINGARCHING BRADYCARDIA HICCUPS SANDIFERS SYNDROME ASPIRATIONLARINGITIS/STRIDOR RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS HOARSENESS

    DIARRHEABLOODY STOOLSRHINITISNASAL CONGESTIONANAPHYLAXISCONSTIPATIONECZEMA/DERMATITISANGIOEDEMALIP SWELLINGURTICARIA/ITCHING

    IRRITABILITYCOLICPARENTAL ANXIETYFEEDING REFUSALFAILURE TO THRIVEVOMITINGREGURGITATIONSIDEROPENIC ANAEMIAWHEEZINGAPNEA/ALTE/SIDS SLEEP DISTURBANCESGERCMPAPrevalence and Natural History of Infant Regurgitation

  • Dietary interventionsJ Pediatr Gastroentoerol Nutr 2009;49:498-547Because regurgitation is sometimes the sole manifestation of cows milk protein allergy in healthy-looking infants, a 2-week trial of protein hydrolysate or amino acidbased formula or a trial of milk-free diet for the breast-feeding mother is appropriate in infants not responding to previous management.

  • Which formula should we use?

  • Hydrolysed protein accelerates the gastrointestinal transport of formula in preterm infantsThe gastrointestinal transit time was shorter when a partially HF, containing an ultra-filtrated mixture of hydrolysed whey and hydrolysed casein, with a molecular weight 75%
  • UPDATE ON ANTI-REGURGITATION MILK FORMULAS.A significant difference was observed on gastric emptying between casein-predominant and whey-hydrolysate feedings.

    According to data obtained with a 13C-octanoic acid breath test in a randomized controlled cross-over study, extensive hydrolysates have a significant enhanced gastric emptying compared to formulas with partial hydrolyzed and intact proteins.

    In a cross-over double-blinded trial, infants significantly reduced regurgitation, crying and gastric emptying time (assessed by 13-C acetate breath test) when fed a partial whey hydrolysate with a combination of thickeners (bean gum and processed tapioca starch) compared to an intact-protein casein-predominant (single) thickened one.

    The above studies show that hydrolyzed formulas (more eHF than pHF) accelerates gastric emptying compared to standard formula. JPGN 2015 in press

  • Thickened formulas reduce regurgitation.Recent studies indicate that thickened partially HF may have an additional benefit, although the data are too limited to result in a recommendation.

    Acta Pdiatrica. 2014 103, pp. 689695Y Vandenplas, S Cruchet, C Faure, HC Lee, C Di Lorenzo, A Staiano, Xu Chundi, MM Aw, P Gutierrez-Castrellon, A Asery, J Spolidoro, RG Heine, M Miqdady, ME Arancibia, P Alarcon

  • Infantile colic

  • For breast-fed infants, clinicians should advise mothers to continue breastfeeding. In some infants however, with excessive irritability and crying a diagnostic elimination diet of the lactating mother excluding dairy products for two to four weeks followed by challenge, may be recommended in order to exclude CMPA.

    In formula-fed infants, the elimination of CMP and dietary treatment with an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula (eHF) has been reported as effective Nutritional Management: Cow's milk elimination

  • Experience, but not evidence, has suggested that partially hydrolyzed formulas can be a useful alternative especially when eHF are too expensive or not available and CMPA is not a potential cause of IC.

    In some cases, these formulae are lactose-reduced or lactose-free and contain prebiotics or probiotics causing, with varying levels of evidence, a reduction in the number of crying episodes and total crying time. Nutritional Management: Other dietary interventionsActa Paediatr 2014; 103: 689-95.J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014; 58: 265-81

  • There seems to be a trend that partially HF may be better tolerated.

    There are insufficient data to recommend a partially HF as single dietary intervention in colicky infants as most studies included other dietary changes as well.

    Acta Pdiatrica. 2014 103, pp. 689695Y Vandenplas, S Cruchet, C Faure, HC Lee, C Di Lorenzo, A Staiano, Xu Chundi, MM Aw, P Gutierrez-Castrellon, A Asery, J Spolidoro, RG Heine, M Miqdady, ME Arancibia, P Alarcon

  • There is no evidence that probiotics added to infant formulae have a similar effect, as this has not been studied.

    The addition of pre- and probiotics to infant formula has been shown to decrease colic, while the voting did not reach consensus that evidence justifies to recommend such a formula.

    A consensus report on the management of frequent gastro-intestinal symptoms in infants: regurgitation, colic, constipation, diarrhoea and cows milk protein allergy.

    A Position paper of the ESPGHAN Gastroenterology Committee and additional experts. Vandenplas Y, Broekaert I, Falconer J, Gottrand F, Lionetti P, Orel R, Papadopoulou A, Ribes-Koninck C, Ruemmele FM, Schppi M, Thapar N, Wilschanski M; Benninga M, Guarino A, Lifschitz C, Salvatore S, Shamir R, Staiano A, Szajewska H

    Vandenplas Y et al JPGN 2015 Submitted

  • Lactose-free infant feeding does not adversely affect growth in term infants.The presence or absence of lactose in infant feeding is an area of debate: while the advantage of lactose-reduced or lactose-free infant feeding is not evidence based, doing so is also not related to any negative effect.

    Y. Vandenplas et al. Nutrition 29 (2013) 184194In formula-fed infants, when low lactase activity is suspected and the child has gassiness, diarrhoea and, in some cases, diaper rash due to the evacuation of acidic stools, lactose may be withdrawn temporarily from the diet.Acta Pdiatrica. 2014 103, pp. 689695Y Vandenplas, S Cruchet, C Faure, HC Lee, C Di Lorenzo, A Staiano, Xu Chundi, MM Aw, P Gutierrez-Castrellon, A Asery, J Spolidoro, RG Heine, M Miqdady, ME Arancibia, P Alarcon

  • Functional Constipation

  • Constipation has been shown in some infants to be related to the intake of CMP, although there was no consensus reach that extensive hydrolysates could be indicated in constipated infants.

    A few studies have shown that soy formula and eHF might be effective.

    Infant formulae containing partially or extensively hydrolysed proteins, fortified with prebiotics and without palm oil as the main source of fat in the oil blend, offer a therapeutic option for those infants with hard stools, but not for infants with infrequent defaecation, although the quality of this evidence is low. A consensus report on the management of frequent gastro-intestinal symptoms in infants: regurgitation, colic, constipation, diarrhoea and cows milk protein allergy.

    A Position paper of the ESPGHAN Gastroenterology Committee and additional experts. Vandenplas Y et al JPGN 2015 Submitted

  • Harder stools are frequent in infants fed formulas containing palm oil as the main source of fat.

    Palm oil has a reduced content of fatty acids esterified to glycerol in the sn-2 position and an increase in those esterified in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions.

    Fatty acid in positions sn-1 and sn-3 undergoes hydrolysis in the intestine, releasing palmitic acid, which is poorly absorbed and forms calcium soaps responsible for firmer stools.

    A formula rich in fatty acids in position sn-2 is likely to soften the stools.

    Fewtrell MS. Br J Nutr. 2013 Sep 28;110(6):1061-7

  • DIFFERENCES IN THE COMPOSITION BETWEEN BREAST- AND FORMULA FEEDING The chemical structure of breast milk triacylglycerol is more favourable to fat hydrolisis:

    In both human milk and infant formulas palmitic acid is the predominant saturated fatty acid

    In human milk 70-85% of palmitic acid is positioned at the sn-2 positin of the triacylglycerol molecule, whereas in regular infant formulas 88-94% of palmitic acid is found at the sn-1 and sn-3 position

    In human milk, palmitic acid esterified at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerol molecule is well absorbed as 2-monopalmitin, since it readily forms mixed micelles with bile acids

    Bongers MEJ et al. Nutr J 2007; 6: 1-7

  • World J Gastroenterol 2014 October 7; 20(37): 13446-13452In several of the studies with scGOS/lcFOS in a ratio of 9:1 in infant milk formulas, positive effects of this mixture on stool characteristics such as stool consistency and stool frequency were observed.POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF ACTIONIncrease in microbial massSelective fermentation and production of SCFAStimulation of gastrointestinal motilityDirect effects of the provided dietary fibers in the form of scGOS/lcFOS.

  • The clinical effect of a new infant formula in term infants with constipation: a double-blind, randomized cross-over trial

    The addition of a high concentration sn-2 palmitic acid, prebiotic oligosaccharides and partially hydrolyzed whey protein resulted in a strong tendency of softer stools in constipated infants, but not in a difference in defecation frequency

    Bongers MEJ. Nutr J; 2007; 6:8

  • The aims of the study were evaluate: 1) the correlation between stool characteristics (consistency and frequency) and gut transit time in children 2) whether Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) may be considered as a reliable method of assessing intestinal transit rate in children.

    A significant correlation was found between stool form and whole- gut transit time (WGTT) in both constipatedand non-constipated children, No correlation was found between stool frequency and WGTT and between stool frequency and stool form.

    Conclusion: In this prospective, observational, case control study we showed that stool form as measured by BSFS rather than stool frequency correlates with whole gut transit time in both constipated and non-constipated children.

    Stool consistency, but not frequency, correlates with total gastrointestinal transit time in childrenRusso M. et al. J Pediatr 2012

  • NUOVE FORMULE NEI DISORDINI FUNZIONALI GASTROINTESTINALI ConclusioniReflusso gastroesofageo funzionale: Latti ispessiti con o senza idrolisi parziale-spinta.

    Coliche: no studi controllati; se sintomi molto severi latti con idrolisi parziale o spinta

    Stipsi: no studi controllati; se sintomi persistenti latti senza olio di palma, con GOS/FOS; se sintomi molto severi latti con idrolisi parziale o spinta

  • Gura T. Science. 2014 Aug 15;345(6198):747-9.

    **

    **9-32-34*9-32-34***

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