module 5: leading section 2: motivating and rewarding employees

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Module 5: Leading Section 2: Motivating and rewarding employees

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  • Slide 1
  • Module 5: Leading Section 2: Motivating and rewarding employees
  • Slide 2
  • Learning objectives Describe the motivation process Define needs and explain the hierarchy of needs theory Differentiate Theory X from Theory Y Describe the motivation-hygiene theory and equity theory Explain the key relationships in expectancy theory Describe how managers can design individual jobs to maximize employee performance Describe the effect of workforce diversity on motivational practices
  • Slide 3
  • Learning objectives (Contd.) Define leader and explain the difference between managers and leaders Summarize the conclusions of trait theories of leadership Be familiar with Fiedler contingency model Describe the path-goal model of leadership Explain situational leadership Describe characteristics of charismatic leaders and visionary leaders Explain four specific roles of effective team leaders Identify five dimensions of trust
  • Slide 4
  • Motivation and individual needs Motivation: the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual needs Need is defined as an internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive
  • Slide 5
  • Drives Search Behavior Tension Reduction of Tension Satisfied Need The Motivation Process Unsatisfied Need
  • Slide 6
  • Classical theories of motivation Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory Theory X and Theory Y Herzbergs Two-factor Theory
  • Slide 7
  • Early theories of motivation MaslowsHierarchy of Needs SelfEsteemSocialSafetyPhysiological
  • Slide 8
  • Theory X Workers Dislike Work Avoid Responsibility Little Ambition Theory Y Workers Enjoy Work Accept Responsibility Self-Directed
  • Slide 9
  • Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory Hygiene FactorsMotivators High Job Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction 0 Quality of supervision Salary and benefits Company policies Working conditions Relations with others Security and status Career advancement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth
  • Slide 10
  • Contemporary theories of motivation Three-needs theory Equity theory Job characteristics model Expectancy theory
  • Slide 11
  • The Theory of Needs DavidMcClelland The Theory of Needs DavidMcClelland Need for Achievement(nAch) Achievement(nAch) Power(nPow) Power(nPow) Affiliation(nAff) Affiliation(nAff)
  • Slide 12
  • Equity Theory Ratio Comparison* Employees Perception Outcomes A Inputs A Outcomes A Inputs A Outcomes A Inputs A Outcomes B Inputs B Outcomes B Inputs B Outcomes B Inputs B < = > Inequity (Under-Rewarded) Equity Inequity (Over-Rewarded) * Where A is the employee, and B is a relevant other or referent.
  • Slide 13
  • The Job CharacteristicsModel Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback
  • Slide 14
  • CharacteristicsExamples Skill Variety High varietyThe owner-operator of a garage who does electrical repair, rebuilds engines, does body work, and interacts with customers Low varietyA bodyshop worker who sprays paint eight hours a day Task Identity High identityA cabinetmaker who designs a piece of furniture, selects the wood, builds the object, and finishes it to perfection Low identityA worker in a furniture factory who operates a lathe to make table legs Task Significance High significanceNursing the sick in a hospital intensive-care unit Low significanceSweeping hospital floors Autonomy High autonomyA telephone installer who schedules his or her own work for the day, and decides on the best techniques for a particular installation Low autonomyA telephone operator who must handle calls as they come according to a routine, highly specified procedure Feedback High feedbackAn electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then tests it to determine if it operates properly Low feedbackAn electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then routes it to a quality control inspector who tests and adjusts it Examples of High and Low Job Characteristics
  • Slide 15
  • Personal and Work Outcomes Core Job Dimensions Critical Psychological States The Job Characteristics Model Skill variety Task identity Task significance Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities Autonomy Feedback High internal work motivation High-quality work performance High satisfaction with the work Low absenteeism and turnover Employee Growth Need Strength
  • Slide 16
  • The Motivating Potential Score Motivating Potential Score (MPS) Autonomy Feedback = Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance ++ 3 X X High MPS Increases Motivation Performance Satisfaction and Decreases Absence Turnover
  • Slide 17
  • Expectancy Theory 3. Rewards-personal goals relationship 1. Effort-performance relationship 2. Performance-rewards relationship IndividualEffortIndividualPerformance IndividualGoals OrganizationalRewards 1 2 3
  • Slide 18
  • An Integrative Model of Motivation Personal Goals Personal Goals Ability Task complexity High nAch High nAch Individual Performance Individual Performance Objective Performance Evaluation System Objective Performance Evaluation System Reinforcement Individual Effort Individual Effort Dominant Needs Dominant Needs Equity Comparison O I A I B Equity Comparison O I A I B Organization Rewards Organization Rewards Goals Direct Behavior Goals Direct Behavior
  • Slide 19
  • Leaders and leadership Leaders are people who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority Leadership is an influence process; therefore, leaders are people who, by their actions, encourage a group of people to move toward a common or shared goal.
  • Slide 20
  • Trait Theories of Leadership Ambition and Energy Desire to Lead Self-ConfidenceHonesty and Integrity IntelligenceJob-RelevantKnowledge
  • Slide 21
  • Behavioral approach to leadership Behavioral theories of leadership Ohio State University studies The University of Michigan studies
  • Slide 22
  • Continuum of Leader Behavior Manager makes decision Manager sells decision Manager presents ideas Manager presents tentative decision Employees make decision Autocratic Laissez-faire Consultative Participative Democratic Boss-Centered Leadership Employee-Centered Leadership
  • Slide 23
  • Formal Studies of Behavioral Styles Ohio State Initiating Structure Consideration Employee-Orientation Production-Orientation University of Michigan
  • Slide 24
  • The Managerial Grid 123456789123456789 1 2 34 5 6 7 89 Concern for People Concern for Production (1,9) (1,1) (5,5) (9,9) (9,1)
  • Slide 25
  • Contingency approach to leadership Fiedler model Path-goal theory Leader-participation model Situational leadership
  • Slide 26
  • Fiedlers LPC Scale PleasantFriendlyRejectingHelpfulUnenthusiasticTenseDistantColdCooperativeSupportiveBoringQuarrelsomeSelf-assuredEfficientGloomyOpen UnpleasantUnfriendlyAcceptingFrustratingEnthusiasticRelaxedCloseWarmUncooperativeHostileInterestingHarmoniousHesitantInefficientCheerfulGuarded.............................................................................................................................. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  • Slide 27
  • Findings of the Fiedler Model Category Leader-Member Relations Task Structure Position Power I Good High Strong II Good High Weak III Good Low Strong IV Good Low Weak V Poor High Strong VI Poor High Weak VII Poor Low Strong VIII Poor Low Weak High Low Performance People-Oriented Task-Oriented FavorableModerateUnfavorable
  • Slide 28
  • The Path-Goal Theory Environmental Situational Factors OutcomesLeaderBehavior Subordinate
  • Slide 29
  • 1 2 3 45 Increased Employee Involvement Increased Leader Control Employee Involvement Continuum Leader Participation Model
  • Slide 30
  • Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader- Participation Model Quality Requirement Problem Structure Employee Conflict Geographic Dispersion Commitment Requirement Commitment Probability Employee Information Motivation Time Leader Information Goal Congruence Time Constraint Motivation Development
  • Slide 31
  • ParticipatingSelling DelegatingTelling The Situational Leadership Model Style of Leader High task and high relationship High relationship and low task Low relationship and low task High task and low relationship Task Behavior Relationship Behavior Able and willing Unable and unwilling R4 Able and unwilling R3 Unable and Willing R2 R1 HighModerateLow S3S2 S4S1
  • Slide 32
  • Emerging approach to leadership Charismatic leadership Visionary leadership Transactional and transformational leadership
  • Slide 33
  • Charismatic Leadership Self-confidence Vision and articulation Strong convictions Extraordinary behavior Image as a change agent Environmental sensitivity
  • Slide 34
  • Extend the Vision Explain Express Visionary Leadership
  • Slide 35
  • Leadership Styles Motivation versus Inspiration Transformational Leaders Transactional Leaders
  • Slide 36
  • Team Leader Roles ConflictManagers Trouble-Shooters CoachesLiaisons
  • Slide 37
  • What Is Trust? Integrity Competence Consistency Loyalty Openness
  • Slide 38
  • Deterrence-Based Knowledge-BasedIdentification-Based Three Types of Trust