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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 1 Principle of Management Week 8 Motivating Employees.

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  • *Principle of ManagementWeek 8Motivating Employees.

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Table of contents;Reading exercise Grupo M.. Motivation and motivations theory.Early theories of motivation. Maslows Hierarchy of needs. McGregors Theory X and Theory Y. Herzbergs Hygiene Theory.Contemporary theories of motivation. Three Needs Theory Contents versus process theories. Goal setting theory. Reinforcement theory. Designing Motivating jobs. Equity theory. Expectancy theory.Current issues on motivation.Motivation: from theories to practice. Reading assignment (Group Discussion and presentation).Summary.Motivating your self.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management*Motivation Theories.Current Issues.

    Theories intoPractice.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Motivation: The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organisational goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual needs. Need: An internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive.UnsatisfiedNeedTensionDrivesSearchbehaviourSatisfiedNeedReduction ofTensionThe Motivation Process

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Hierarchy of needs theory: Maslows theory that there is a hierarchy of five human needs, physiological, safety, social, esteem and self actualisation.

    Physiological. Food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction and other physical requirements.

    Safety needs. Security and protection from physical and emotional harm, as well as assurance that physical needs will continue to be met.

    Social needs.Affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship.

    Esteem needs.Internal esteem factors such as self respect, autonomy and achievement and external esteem factors such as status, recognition and attention.. Self actualisation needs.Growth, achieving ones potential and self fulfillment, the drive to become what one is capable of becoming.

    Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management*SelfActualisationEsteemSocialSafetyPhysicalMaslows Hierarchy of Needs

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management*McGregors Theory X and Theory Y.

    Theory X: The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility and must be coerced to perform.

    Theory Y: The assumption that employees are creative, seek responsibility and Can exercise self direction.

    Assumptions: Theory X: Employees inherently dislike work and will attempt to avoid it whenever possible. Employees must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve desired goals. Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. Theory Y: Employees view work as being as natural as rest or play. Employees will exercise self direction and self control if they are committed to the objectives. The average person can learn to accept, and even seek responsibility. The ability to make good decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the ability solely of managers.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Herzbergs motivation: Hygiene Theory. The motivation theory that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, where as extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction. Hygiene Factors: Factors that eliminate job dissatisfaction but do not motivate. Motivators: Factors that increase job satisfaction and motivation.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management*MotivatorHygiene Factors Achievement. Recognition. Work itself. Responsibility. Advancement. Growth. Supervision. Company policy. Relationship with supervisor. Working conditions. Salary. Relationship with peers. Personal life. Relationship with subordinates. Status. Security.Extremely SatisfiedNeutralExtremely DissatisfiedHerzbergs Motivation Hygiene Theory

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* McClellands Three Needs Theory: The motivation theory that says that three needs achievement, power and affiliation are major motives in work. Need for achievement: (nAch) The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed. Need for power: (nPow) The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behave otherwise. Need for Affiliation: (nAff) The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationship.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Goal setting theory: The proposition that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals. Self Efficacy: An individuals belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.SpecificGoalsDifficultSelf efficacyMotivation(Intention to workTowards goals)National CultureCommitted to achieving.ParticipationIn setting.Accepted.Higher PerformancePlusGoal achievement.Goals are public.Individual has internal focus of control.Self set Goals.Goal Setting Theory

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management*Reinforcement theory: The theory that behaviour is a function of its consequences. Reinforcer:Any consequence immediately following a response that increases the probability that the behaviour will be repeated.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Designing Motivating Jobs: Job design: The way tasks are combined to form complete jobs. Job scope: The number of different tasks required in a job and the frequency with which those tasks are repeated. Job enlargement: The horizontal expansion of a job by increasing job scope. Job enrichment: Vertical expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluating responsibilities. Job depth: The degree of control employee have over their work.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Designing Motivating Jobs: Job characteristics model (JCM): A framework for analysing and designing jobs that identifies five primary job characteristics, their interrelationships and their impact on outcomes.Skill variety: The degree to which a job requires variety of activities so that an employee can use a number of different skills and talents. Task identity: The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.Task significance: The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.Autonomy: The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence and discretion to the individual in scheduling work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.Feedback : The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individuals obtaining direct and clear information about his or her performance effectiveness.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management*Core JobDimensions

    Skill variety. Task identity. Task significance.

    Autonomy.

    Feedback.CriticalPsychological states

    ExperiencedMeaningfulness.Of the works.

    Experienced responsibilityFor outcomes of the work.

    Knowledge of the actualResults of the work activities.Personal andWork outcomes

    High internalWork motivation.High qualityWork performance.

    High satisfactionWith the work.

    Low absenteeismAnd turnover.Strength of employees growth needJob Characteristic Model

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management*ExternalConditionsImposed onThe group.Group members resources.Groupstructure.GroupProcesses.Group Tasks.Performance andsatisfaction.Group Behaviour Model.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management*Suggested actionCore job dimensionCombine tasksForm natural work unitsSkill varietyEstablish client relationshipsTask identityTask significanceAutonomyLoad verticallyFeedbackOpen feedback channelsGuidelines for Job Redesign

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Outcomes A < Outcome B Inputs A Inputs B

    Outcome A = Outcome B Input A Input B

    Outcome A > Outcome B Input A Input BInequity (Under rewarded)

    Equity.

    Inequity (Over rewarded)

    Equity theory: The theory that an employee compares his or her jobs input-outcome ratio with that of relevant others and then correct any inequity. Referents: The persons, systems or selves against which individuals compare themselves to assess equity.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Expectancy theory: The theory that an individual tend to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.IndividualEffortIndividualPerformanceOrganisationalRewardsIndividualGoalsABCA = Effort performance linkage.B = Performance reward linkage.C = Attractiveness of reward.Simplified Expectancy Model

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management*IndividualEffortIndividualPerformanceOrganisationalRewardsIndividualGoalsEquityComparisonHigh nAchJobDesign.DominantNeedsReinforcementObjectivePerformanceEvaluationsystemJob Design.AbilityGoal- direct behaviourIntegratingContemporary Theories Of Motivation

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Motivating diverse workforce: Flexible working schedules: Compressed work week: A workweek in which employee work longer hours per day but fewer days per week. Flexible hours: A scheduling system in which employee are required to work a certain number of hours a week, but are free within limits to vary the daily hours of work. Job sharing: The practice of having two or more people split a full time job. Telecommuting: A job approach in which employees work at home and are linked to the work place by computer and modem. Pay for Performance: Compensation plan that pays employees on the basis of some performance measures.Open book management: A motivational approach in which and Organisational financial statements (the book) are shared with all the employees. Employee share ownership: A compensation program in which employees become part owners of the organisation by receiving shares as a performance incentive.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Motivating new workforce: Motivating professional. Motivating contingent workers. Motivating low skilled, minimum wage employees. Motivating in an international context.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Suggestions for motivating employees:Recognise individual differences.Match people to jobs.Use Goals.Ensure goals are perceived as attainable.Individual rewards.Link rewards to performance.Check system for equity.Do not ignore money.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management

  • Bachelor of Aviation Management* Summary.

    Motivation define. Needs theory. Theory X and Theory Y. Motivation hygiene. High achievers preferences. Goals as motivation. Reinforcement theory. Job redesign. Equity theory. Expectancy theory. Motivating diverse workforce. Motivation in the management practice.

    Bachelor of Aviation Management