lab 2: appendicular skeleton

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Lab 2: Appendicular Skeleton. Pectoral Girdle. pectoral girdle - scapula, clavicle Upper limbs attach. Pelvic Girdle. pelvic girdle – os coxae (pubis, ishium , ilium ) lower limbs attach . Articulations . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Lab 2: Appendicular SkeletonPectoral Girdlepectoral girdle - scapula, clavicle

Upper limbs attach

Pelvic Girdlepelvic girdle os coxae (pubis, ishium, ilium)lower limbs attach

this is another word for joint, or where 2 bones contact each other; often named for the 2 bones that are meeting

Articulations Functional Classifications of Joints1. synarthrosis - immovable (ex: sutures of the skull)2. amphiarthrosis - slightly moveable (most joints of the axial skeleton are synarthrodial or amphiarthrodial)3. diarthrosis - freely movable, characterized by joint capsule containing synovial fluid and accessory structures (cartilage pads, ligaments, etc.) mostly found in the appendicular skeleton where a lot of movement is necessary (ex: knee, hip and glenohumeral joints Diarthrodial (Synovial) joints are also divided into subcategories based on the movements that they permit gliding - articular surfaces flat or slightly curved; allows sliding movements in one or two planes (intercarpal and intertarsal joints)

hinge - rounded process of one bone fits into concave surface of another bone; allows movement in one plane (elbow joint)

pivot - rounded/conical surface of one bone articulates with a shallow depression or foramen in another bone: uniaxial rotation is the movement allowed (atlas-axis articulation)

4. condyloid - oval condyle of bone fits into an ellipsoidal depression in another bone, allowing movement in two planes (metacarpal-phalangeal joints (knuckles)).

5. saddle - articulating surfaces are saddle shaped; convex surface of one bone articulates with concave surface of another bone (ex: articulation occipital condyles & atlas).

6. ball and socket - ball shaped head of one bone articulates with cuplike depression of another (hip joint, glenohumeral joint)

Ligaments (structures that connect 2 or more bones, usually named for bones)collatoral to the sideannular around a surfaceinterosseus between length of two bonescruciate crosses from one side to the other