Appendicular Skeleton and Joints Lab # 7 Skeletal System II.
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Slide 1Appendicular Skeleton and JointsLab # 7Skeletal System IIThe Appendicular SkeletonPectoral girdlePelvic girdleUpper limbsLower limbsRight ClavicleSuperior viewInferior viewPectoral GirdleAnterior view Clavicles Scapulas Acromial endSternal endSternal end Acromial endRight ScapulaPosterior viewLateral viewAnterior viewAcromion processCoracoid processCoracoid processAcromion process SpineAcromion processCoracoid processGlenoid cavityPosterior viewAnterior viewRight HumerusGreater tubercleLesser tubercleHeadDeltoid tuberosityCapitulumTrochleaCoronoid fossaOlecranon fossaIntertubercular sulcusHeadGreater tubercleLesser tubercleANTERIOR VIEWHUMERUSIntertubercular sulcusCapitulumTrochleaCoronoid fossaOlecranon fossaANTERIOR VIEWPOSTERIOR VIEWHUMERUSRight Radius and UlnaAnterior view Styloid processTrochlear notchRadial headRADIUSULNA Styloid processCoronoid process Olecranon processProximal radioulnar jointDistal radioulnar joint(It is a pivot joint)8Carpal bones (8)Phalanges (14)Metacarpal bones (5)Right HandPosterior view Proximal phalanx Intermediate phalanx Distal phalanx Distal phalanx Proximal phalanxMetacarpal 11 2 345LATERAL VIEWCOXAL BONEIliumIschiumPubisIliumIschiumPubisLateral viewRight Coxal BoneAcetabulumIliac crestGreater sciatic notchIschial spineIschial tuberosityObturator foramenAnterior superior iliac spinePosterior superior iliac spineLesser sciatic notchInferior pubic ramusSuperior pubic ramusPubic symphysisAnterior viewPosterior viewRight PatellaAnterior viewPosterior viewRight FemurAnterior viewPosterior viewHeadLesser trochanterGreater trochanterGreater trochanterMedialcondyleLateral condyleLateral condyleNeckHeadLesser trochanterGreater trochanterMedial condyleLateral condyleFEMURNeckRight Tibia and FibulaAnterior viewFIBULATIBIAHead of fibulaFibular or lateral malleolus Tibial or medial malleolus Phalanges (14)Tarsal bones (7)Metatarsal bones (5)Superior viewLateral view41 2 35Metatarsal bones (5)Phalanges (14)Right FootDistal phalanx Proximal phalanxIntermediate phalanxFirst metatarsal boneProximal phalanx Distal phalanxCalcaneus TalusCalcaneus Talus It is any point where two bones meet, whether or not the bones are movable at that interfaceJoint (articulation):JOINTSStructural Classification (according to the manner in which the adjacent bones are bound to each other, with differences in how freely the bones can move)1- Fibrous joints: Points at which adjacent bones are bound by fibrous connective tissue (mainly collagen fibers). No space between the two bones2- Cartilaginous joints: When two bones are linked by cartilage. No space between the two bones3- Bony joints: Immovable joints formed when the gap between two bones ossify, and they become in effect, a single bone. No space between the two bones4- Synovial joints: They are joints in which two bones are separated by a space called a joint or synovial cavityFunctional Classification (according to their functional characteristics or their ability to move)1- Synarthroses: Immovable joints 2- Amphiarthroses: They are joints that allow slightly movements3- Diarthroses: They are freely movable jointsStructural Classification (according to the manner in which the adjacent bones are bound to each other, with differences in how freely the bones can move)1- Fibrous joints: Points at which adjacent bones are bound by fibrous connective tissue (mainly collagen fibers). No space between the two bones SyndesmosisAn interosseus membrane unites the fibula to the tibia (also the radio to the ulna) GomphosisCollagen fibers attach tooth to jawbone allows the tooth SuturesImmovable or slightly mo-vable fibrous joints that closely bind the bones of the skull to each other2- Cartilaginous joints: When two bones are linked by cartilage. No space between the two bones3- Bony joints: Immovable joints formed when the gap between two bones ossify, and they become in effect, a single bone. No space between the two bonesPubic symphysis in which right and left pubic bones joined by interpubic discBodies of vertebrae and intervertebral discsJoints between the sacral vertebrae and bones of coccyx4- Synovial joints: They are joints in which two bones are separated by a space called a joint or synovial cavityJoint cavity or synovial cavityIt secrets a viscous and slippery synovial fluid that lubricates the jointFibrous capsule Synovial membraneJoint capsule or articular capsule:Articular cartilages LigamentsFunctional Classification (according to their functional characteristics or their ability to move)1- Synarthroses: Immovable joints 2- Amphiarthroses: They are joints that allow slightly movements GomphosisSutures3- Diarthroses: They are freely movable jointsSynovial joints are diarthrosesThe Six Types of Synovial JointsBall-and-socket joint(humeroscapular)Pivot joint(radioulnar)Saddle joint(trapeziometacarpal)Hinge joint(humeroulnar)Plane (gliding) joint(intercarpal)Condylar joint(metacarpophalangeal)Quadriceps femoris muscleTendon of quadricepsPatellar ligamentcollateral ligamentcollateral ligamentTibialFibularThe Knee Joint23Tendon of quadricepsPatellar ligamentTibial collateral ligamentFibular collateral ligamentcondylecondyleLateralMedialcruciate ligamentcruciate ligamentAnteriorPosteriormeniscusmeniscusLateralMedial24Quadriceps tendonPatellar ligamentTibial collateral ligamentFibular collateral ligamentLateral meniscusMedial meniscus FIBULA FEMUR FIBULAThe Knee JointTibiofemoral Joint: It is where the condyles of the femur joint the condyles of the tibia PATELAHinge jointSynovial jointDiarthrosesPatellofemoral Joint: It is where the patella articulates with the femurPlane (gliding) jointSynovial jointDiarthrosesFemurFemurTibiaTibiaFibulaPatellaQuadriceps tendonPatellar ligamentLateral meniscusFibular collateral ligamentTibial collateral ligamentMedial meniscusLateral viewMedial viewPosterior view FemurTibiaFibulaFibular collateral ligamentPosterior cruciate ligamentAnterior cruciate ligamentTibial collateral ligamentLateral meniscusMedial meniscus
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