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  • According to most historians, Judaism began when Abraham made divine covenant with God. Because of this, Abraham is considered to be the Father of the Semitic religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam).

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  • Throughout Judaism history ,their followers have been called many names.

    Hebrews refer to those who accepted Yahweh as their God and much of their history is written in Hebrew Bible.

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  • Throughout Judaism history ,their followers have been called many names.

    Israelite refer to the descendants of the Hebrews, which originated from Abraham.

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  • His grandson , Jacob had 12 sons and their descendants became known as the 12 tribes of Israel.

    JewcomesfromYehudahorJudah,theSouthernKingdomofIsrael.Nowitisusedtorefersomeonewho practices Judaism and takes part in Jewish Culture.

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  • Jews do not believe that Jesus was anything more than a good and wise man who lived and died 2000 years ago Jews still await their messiah

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  • Modern Denominations of Judaism

  • Orthodox JudaismMainstream JudaismBelief in the direct revelation of divine law which was recorded in the TorahIt is eternal, unchanging, and the sole guide for lifeCarefully and strictly observe the commandments as the direct will of God Ultra-Orthodox assert that complete separation from secular society

  • Orthodox JudaismOrthodox Judaism is the most traditional expression of modern Judaism. Orthodox Jews believe the entire Torah - including "Written," the the Pentateuch, and "Oral," the Talmud) was given to Moses by God at Sinai and remains authoritative for modern life in its entirety.

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  • Reconstructionist JudaismEarly 1920s in US by Rabbi Mordecai KaplanJudaism is not merely a religion, but an evolving religious civilization, a peoplehood, a culture, as well as a faith community

  • Reform JudaismEarly 19th C. GermanyAssert authorship of Torah to Divinely inspired human beingsModern worship

  • Reform JudaismReform Judaism affirms the central tenets of Judaism - God, Torah and Israel - and embraces diverse beliefs and practices. Reform Jews accept the Torah as the foundation God's ongoing revelation while learning also from modern exploration of its development.

    *Tenet-a belief or idea that is very important to a group

  • Conservative JudaismAgree that change was necessary but felt Reform had eliminated too many basic Jewish practicesMotto is tradition and change

  • Conservative JudaismConservative Judaism may be said to be a moderate position between Orthodox and Reform Judaism. It seeks to conserve the traditional elements of Judaism, while allowing for modernization to a less radical extent than Reform Judaism.

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  • Conservative JudaismConservative Judaism maintains that the ideas in the Torah come from God, but were transmitted by humans and contain a human component. Conservative Judaism generally accepts the binding nature of halakhah (Jewish Law), but believes that the Law should adapt, absorbing aspects of the predominant culture while remaining true to Judaism's values.

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  • Conservative JudaismDefines the Jew as being born of Jewish motherReform JudaismTraces it to either a Jewish father or mother.

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  • Sacred Texts Torah, Poetry, Prophets, Talmud, Mishnah

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  • Sacred TextsTanakh the Hebrew Bible (called the Old Testament by Christians)is a collection of 24 books divided into 3 parts:

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  • Tenach / TanakhHebrew name for Hebrew BibleCreated by taking the first letter of each of the three sections of the Bible and making a word out of those three letters.

    T: for TorahN: for NeviimCH: for Ketuvim

  • 1. TORAHTheTorah, or Jewish Written Law, consists of the five books of the Hebrew Bible - known more commonly to non-Jews as the "Old Testament" - that were given by G-d toMosesonMount Sinai.

    *Much of Jewish history is recorded in the Hebrew Bible but we need to emphasize that the texts were written by the Jews themselves in the Promised Land.

  • 1. TORAHTorah comes in the beginning and explains where it all began. Teachings or lawGenesis, Exodus,Leviticus, numbers, Deutoronomy

    *Much of Jewish history is recorded in the Hebrew Bible but we need to emphasize that the texts were written by the Jews themselves in the Promised Land.

  • 1. TORAHTorah contains the early history of Judaism. We begin with Genesis, the first book of Torah-and of the Hebrew Bible.Genesis means origin.

    *Much of Jewish history is recorded in the Hebrew Bible but we need to emphasize that the texts were written by the Jews themselves in the Promised Land.

  • TorahGenesis (Bereshit): contains stories of creation, records the establishment of the covenant between God and the Jewish people, tells of the lives of the patriarchs and matriarchsExodus (Shmot): account of Israelites enslaved in Egypt, the exodus from Egypt, the receiving of the 10 Commandments at Mt. SinaiLeviticus (Vayikra): gives Gods ethical and ritual laws and specific instructions to priests on how to perform their duties

  • TorahNumbers (Bamidbar): recounts the of the Israelites through the desert and gives more of Gods ethical and ritual lawsDeuteronony (Devarim): Moses reviews the laws and the people prepare to enter the promised land.

  • 2. The NeviimMeans prophets.Contains writings of Gods messenger, who spoke His word to the Hebrews. The writing is the more literary section of the Tanakh, consisting of stories, proverbs, psalms and poetries.

    *Much of Jewish history is recorded in the Hebrew Bible but we need to emphasize that the texts were written by the Jews themselves in the Promised Land.

  • 2. The Neviimthe second main division of theHebrew Bible(theTanakh), between theTorah(instruction) andKetuvim(writings).

    *Much of Jewish history is recorded in the Hebrew Bible but we need to emphasize that the texts were written by the Jews themselves in the Promised Land.

  • 2. The NeviimIt contains two sub-groups, the Former Prophets, the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings) and the Latter Prophets, the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel and The Twelve minor prophets).

    *Former Prophets[edit]The Former Prophets are the books Joshua, Judges, 1st & 2nd Samuel, 1st & 2nd Kings. They contain historical narratives that begin immediately after the death of Moses with the divine appointment of Joshua as his successor, who then leads the people of Israel into the Promised Land, and end with the release from imprisonment of the last king of Judah. Treating Samuel and Kings as single books, they cover:Latter Prophets[edit]The Latter Prophets are divided into two groups, theMajor prophets(Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel) and theTwelve Minor Prophets(Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi) collected into a single book.

  • NeviimEarly Prophets: Joshua, Judges, Samuel (2), Kings (2)Latter Prophets:

    Major Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, EzekielMinor Prophets: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nachum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

  • 3. Ketuvimis the third and final section of theTanakh(Hebrew Bible), afterTorah(instruction) andNevi'im(prophets). In English translations of the Hebrew Bible, this section is usually entitled "Writings".

    *Former Prophets[edit]The Former Prophets are the books Joshua, Judges, 1st & 2nd Samuel, 1st & 2nd Kings. They contain historical narratives that begin immediately after the death of Moses with the divine appointment of Joshua as his successor, who then leads the people of Israel into the Promised Land, and end with the release from imprisonment of the last king of Judah. Treating Samuel and Kings as single books, they cover:Latter Prophets[edit]The Latter Prophets are divided into two groups, theMajor prophets(Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel) and theTwelve Minor Prophets(Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi) collected into a single book.

  • KetuvimContains wisdom literature, poetry, songs, narrative, history, religious philosophy, and love hymns12 books in total Books include: Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nechemiah, Chronicles

  • TalmudThe Talmud (Hebrew for study) is one of the central works of the Jewish people. It is the record of rabbinic teachings.

  • TalmudThe Talmud is made up of two separate works: theMishnah, primarily a compilation of Jewish laws, written in Hebrew and edited sometimes around 200 C.E. in Israel; and theGemara,the rabbinic commentaries and discussions on the Mishnah.

    Commentaries-spoken or written discussion on which people express opinionA compilation of the discussions, interpretations, explanations, and theological arguments about the Mishnah*

  • Important TextsThe Talmud (a collection of stories, laws, medical knowledge and so on)

    Learning or StudyThe Mishnahs (Hebrew laws)The Gemara (a HUGE collection of sayings from Rabbis)

  • MishnahThe first compilation of the Oral Law between 200 BCE and 200 CECollects all of the Jewish legal material from the post-Torah era.Divided into 6 orders (or chapters)

    Seeds, Festivals, Women, Damages, Holy Things, Purifications

  • Dietary PracticesFood consumptions and handling must be done according to religious laws.All blood must be drained before the meat is cooked and eaten because blood,which give life ,is sacred to God.The Jews do not eat pork and shellfish (see Leviticus 11), because these animal

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