dr. william kritsonis, educational philosophy

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Dr. William Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy

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  • 1.10108646 Page 1 of 20 1. Using the Six Realms of Meaning as a Process for Selecting Curriculum for the Development of the Complete Person ABSTRACT Unity in the learning experience can occur through differentiated learning (Kritsonis, 2007). The six realms of meaning or logical patterns bring a variety of structures in knowledge and disciplined understanding. No one plan is best for every teacher and for all students in all situations. Good teaching lies in guided discipline. Introduction The six realms of meaning cover the range of possible meanings and comprise the basic competencies that general education should develop in every person. A complete person should be skilled in the use of speech, symbol, and gesture (symbolic), factually well informed (empirics), capable of creating and appreciating objects of esthetic significance (esthetics), endowed with a rich and disciplined life in relation to self and others (synnoetics), able to make wise decisions and to judge between right and wrong (ethics) and possessed of an integral outlook (synoptics). These are the aims of general education for the development of complete persons. A philosophical theory of the curriculum for general education based on the idea of logical patterns in disciplined understanding is presented in Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning (Kritsonis, 2007). There are patterns or structures in knowledge and an understanding of these typical forms is essential for the guidance of teaching, learning, and constructing the curriculum. The various patterns of knowledge are varieties of meaning, and the

2. 10108646 Page 2 of 20 learning of these patterns is the clue to the effective realization of essential humanness through the curriculum of general education (Kritsonis, 2007). Purpose of the Article The purpose of this essay is to discuss six philosophical strategies for implementing the realms of mean as a process for selecting curriculum for the development of the complete person. Also, planning initiatives are discussed for strategic planning in educational leadership. Planning Initiatives The six realms of meaning are viewed as six fundamental patterns of meaning (Kritsonis, 2007). These patterns are sequential and provide the foundation for all meanings that enter the human experience and emerge from an analysis of possible distinctive modes of human understanding. The patterns are symbolics, empirics, esthetics, synnoetics, ethics, and synoptics (Kritsonis, 2007). The entire school or organizations future is at stake in strategic planning (Center for Organizational Development and Leadership, 2007). Strategic planning in educational leadership determines where a school is going over the next year or more and how it's going to get there. The ontology of planning determined direction to accomplishing goals. A postmodern approach for academic and administrative departments would be to implement plans and strategies that are narrowly focused and vital to their future. A plan too broad would allow for planning initiatives to go amiss from the correct course of focus or persons could get stuck and not be able to move forward (Center for School or Organizational Development and Leadership, 2007). The six realms of meaning can be used as a national guide in planning initiatives for educational leaders. Espitemologically, a person deals with content that is presented so that he can absorb it in a way that is learned. 3. 10108646 Page 3 of 20 If a person is to achieve the highest excellence in anything at all, the basic realms are required. The six realms bring meaning in knowledge and disciplined understanding to the development of the complete person. The controlling idea of general education for the development of complete persons emerges from a philosophy of man and his ways of knowing. In the first realm of symbolics, a complete person should be skilled in everyday language with the use of speech, symbol, and gesture, able to study math and learn one to two foreign languages. The second realm of empirics would allow the student to study several of the social sciences such as Physical Science, Biology, Psychology, and Social Science (Kritsonis, 2007). Among the four disciplines in the third realm of esthetics, music, art, literature and the arts of movement in physical education could be studied. Literature is one of the best sources of insight into personality and culture (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 366). The student would be factually well informed, capable of creating and appreciating objects of esthetic significance. The first three realms require detachment as the knower (Kritsonis, 2007). The knower stands apart from what he knows. This view is held by the modernist. The modernist divorces the knower (English, 2003). In the fourth realm of synnoetics, the student could gain personal insight through working with skilled guidance counselors or thorough a social activity. The student is endowed with a rich and disciplined life in relation to self and others. Synnoetics requires active participation and engagement. To know and to be are one and the same in personal existence. Ethics or moral knowledge is the fifth realm where a student is able to make wise decisions and to judge between right and wrong. His moral conduct is a universal responsibility. It is what ought to be done and it is right action. In the sixth realm of synoptics, the student would 4. 10108646 Page 4 of 20 possess an integral outlook of which epistemology - the theory of knowledge, and metaphysics - what is real, are the primary basis for its function (Kritsonis, 2007). Concluding Remarks In conclusion, there are patterns or structures in knowledge and an understanding of these typical forms is essential for the guidance of teaching, learning, and constructing the curriculum. The purpose of this essay is to discuss six philosophical strategies for implementing the realms of mean as a process for selecting curriculum for the development of the complete person. Also planning initiatives are discussed for strategic planning in educational leadership. According to Kritsonis (2007), the six realms of meaning are viewed as six fundamental patterns of meaning. The various patterns of knowledge are varieties of meaning, and the learning of these patterns is the clue to the effective realization of essential humanness through the curriculum of general education of the complete person. The epistemological concern of fostering a culture of continuous assessment is imperative in fulfilling goals in educational leadership. Success in solving the problems of life (Kritsonis, 2007) is best achieved by those whose imaginations are kindled. References Center for School or Organizational Development and Leadership (2007). Strategic planning in higher education: A guide for leaders. [Brochure]. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. English, F. W. (2003). The postmodern challenge to the theory and practice of educational administration. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Kritsonis, W. (2007). Ways of knowing through the realms of meaning. Houston, TX: National FORUM Journals. 5. 10108646 Page 5 of 20 2. Ayn Rand s Atlas Shrugged: Success for an Educator ABSTRACT The role of the mind of man in his existence and the morality of rational self-interest described a new moral philosophy known as Objectivism. Atlas Shrugged shows what happens when human greatness goes on strike. Rational, independent, free and self-reliant individuals achieved greatness and allowed society to thrive. Being true to the mind was an absolute, productive achievement and noble activity. These are lessons for an educators success. Introduction Ayn Rand, the author of Atlas Shrugged, was an objectivist. Her philosophy was the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute (Objectivism (Ayn Rand), n.d.). In Atlas Shrugged, the source of mans rights was the law of identity that states that man is man. Man had rights that allowed him to exist and survive on earth. He had the right to use his mind, to act on his own judgment, to work for his values and to keep the product of his efforts of work. Atlas Shrugged provided a view of the nature of altruism which declared that any action taken for the benefit of others is good and any action taken for ones own benefit is evil. Human greatness consisted of brilliant minds who were honest, thought logically and were creative thinkers of society. In Atlas Shrugged, the individuals involved in the strike were honest men, creative thinkers, great men and women, who were known to the world as the 6. 10108646 Page 6 of 20 movers and shakers of the world. These individuals went on strike. Men who were rational beings, independent, free, and self-reliant achieved greatness and allowed society to thrive. A rational code of thinking was valued. The world needed the prime movers, but treated them viciously. John Galt is the organizer of the strike. He is the leader and initiator of the strike that protested the oppression of the thinkers intellect and creativity. The question, Who is John Galt? is uttered as a sign of despair and hopelessness when answers do not exist to the problems that plaque American society. Withdrawal of the great thinkers caused the collapse of the American economy and the end of dictatorship. The strike proved the role the rational mind played in the attainment of progress and prosperity (Rand, 1961). Topics such as the virtue of wealth, the martyrdom of the industrialist, the capitalism and its moral meaning, and the slogan This is John Galt Speaking are discussed. Purpose of the Article The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities humankind must face during his lifetime relative to life, ethics, morals, values, and spirituality through the story