Counting Women & Children: Restoring the Lost Heritage of Formative Judaism & Early Christianity

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Counting Women & Children: Restoring the Lost Heritage of Formative Judaism & Early Christianity. Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D. Professor of Biblical Studies & Early Christianity John Carroll University. Historical Research Depends upon Testimony. Testimony is Interpreted. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Counting Women &amp; Children: Restoring the Lost Heritage of Formative Judaism&amp; Early ChristianitySheila E. McGinn, Ph.D.Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early ChristianityJohn Carroll University</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Historical ResearchDepends upon Testimony</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Testimony is InterpretedInterpreted witness (even material artifacts)Requires further interpretationPresuppositions influence interpretationNature and extent of testimony (texts, inscriptions, material artifacts, etc.) influences interpretation</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Testimony of Material ArtifactsWhen possible, combine various types of evidence to support reconstruction (e.g., use textual evidence with support identification and interpretation of material artifacts) </p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Testimony of Material ArtifactsThe James OssuaryWhich James is it? Is the brother of Jesus part of the inscription authentic?What is its date?</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Objective of Historical Research: Most Probable ReconstructionTarsus</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Reconstructions are HypothesesNot certain knowledge of the pastUsually a broad outline with some illustrative detailsCorner of Mosaic Floor 3rd4th century Anatolia</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Readers Interpret ReconstructionTarsus, reconstruction of tents like those made by St. Paul</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>The Problem of Memory LossHistorical Some-timers</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Elite Bias of TextsTexts written for literate eliteHighlight their peersI.e., aristocratic class, typically menAverage person not notedChildren rarely mentionedFew women, fewer namedCannot be taken as completeSupplement with material evidence</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Elite Bias of Material EvidenceOnly wealthy can afford durable goods likeDedicatory statues &amp; inscriptionsFrescoes &amp; mosaicsStone v. wood structures</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>A History of ForgetfulnessLibrary of Celsus, Ephesus (2nd century C.E.)</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Who counts depends upon whos countingTerms indicating authority often re-defined when applied to women, e.g.Synagogue inscriptions honoring women as archisynagogos, ruler of the synagogueAuthority of women prophets in I Cor 11:101st century CE Synagogue at Capernaum</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Who counts depends upon whos countingTerms indicating authority often re-defined when applied to women, e.g.Synagogue inscriptions honoring women as archisynagogos, ruler of the synagogueAuthority of women prophets in I Cor 11:10</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Sex-Change OperationsJunia, a Roman woman Paul calls a noteworthy apostle (Rom16:7) becomes the man JuniasThe woman presider in the Priscilla catecombs</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>The Road to RecoveryThe Ephesian Via Sacra</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>How to Overcome Communal Memory LossFollow an explicit, consistent methodologyCultivate gender blindness (i.e., give same level of credence to evidence concerning women and men)Use material remains to supplement textual evidenceRead between the linesSometimes read against the grain</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Women Disciples of JesusMost images of the Last Supper depict only Jesus and twelve men, but women disciples also were there (cf. John 12:18).</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Mothers of SynagoguesThe Temple Scroll (11Q1920)</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Female Priests in Synagogues &amp; ChurchesMarin the Egyptian, a Jewish priestess(CIJ 1514)</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>History of Jewish Origins: Pilgrimage of Remembrance</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p></li><li><p>Other ResourcesBernadette Brooten, Women Leaders in the SynagoguesTal Ilan, Integrating Women into Second Temple History______, Jewish Women in Greco-Roman PalestineJCU Bible Web (http://www.jcu.edu/bible)Sheila E. McGinn, presentation on the Maltz Museum Special Exhibit, Cradle of Christianity: Jewish and Christian Treasures from the Holy Land</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., "Shared Values, Divergent Paths" Symposium</p><p>Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early Christianity"Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early ChristianityAlways piecing together existing data and digging for moreEvidence is interpretedTextual evidence already has been interpreted by author before constructing the textSo have material artifacts been interpreted-which ones to keep, what kinds of materials to use (durable or degradable)"Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early ChristianityDependent upon testimony (texts, archaeological evidence)Absolute certainty is never its end result. Why? Testimony is never identical to the actual facts testified to; it is already an interpretation of fact.Historians interpret the testimony.We bring our own presuppositions to the interpretations of historians.It is possible to build up an image of the past (an hypothesis) -- usually a broad, general picture with a few details helping to flesh it out."Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early ChristianityCaiaphas OssuaryFrom the Caiaphas family tomb in Jerusalem, this ossuary bears the inscription "Yehosef bar Qafa: (Joseph, son of Caiaphas), and it is dated to the Second Temple Period. Caiaphas is the name of the High Priest who presided over the trial of Jesus (Matthew 26:3,57)"Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early ChristianityThe James OssuaryResearchers may have uncovered the first archaeological evidence that refers to Jesus as an actual person and identifies James, the first leader of the Christian church, as his brother.The 2,000-year-old ossuarya box that held bonesbears the inscription "James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus." Until now, all references to the three men have been found only in manuscripts. Andre Lemaire, a paleographer at the Sorbonne University in Paris dates the box, which was empty, to 63 A.D.."Scientists at the Geological Institute of Israel examined the box, which is made of Jerusalem limestone, and judged it to be about 2,000 years old. The inscription is written in Aramaic, in a form that further narrows the possible time frame. "The script is very important for the date because the Aramaic script changed over time in ways we could measure," said P. Kyle McCarter, a paleographer at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. "It's the most important criterion for dating this object, and the script is consistent with a date in the middle of the first century A.D."Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early Christianity"Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early Christianity"Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early ChristianityReaders of the reconstruction add yet another interpretive layer"Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early Christianity"Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early ChristianityMust supplement with material evidence to get a complete picture of the social, cultural, and historical situatione.g., Qumran burials v. the evidence of the scrolls</p><p>Like contemporary televisions Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous, ancients focused on the elite, the extravagant, the powerfulShows depicting middle-class family wearing clothing well beyond reach of the real middle-class, living in homes where the furnishings alone would cost more than my houseEven reality TV is not average persons reality</p><p>E.g., Jairus the archisynagogos v. his daughter, and a woman with a hemorrhage or a poor widowE.g., feeding miracles, 4-5k fed not counting the women and childrenE.g., in all the gospels of the NT, the only child mentioned by name is JesusE.g., the Community Rule from the Dead Sea Scrolls</p><p>When first discovered and studied, scholars thought the Dead Sea Scrolls, discovered in 1948?? at Krbet Qumran, were produced by a community of Essene Jews who were celibate, male, and lived a monastic lifestyle. Excavations of the graveyard at the site, however, revealed remains of women and children. The texts speak exclusively about the brethren, by which the Community Rule means the celibate men who are part of the monastic conventicle, so not even married men are in view, no less the women and children, but the cemetery remains suggest that there may also have been families who were part of the settlement and so were interred in the same graveyard."Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early Christianity"Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early Christianity"Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early ChristianityImage taken from http://members.bib-arch.org/nph-proxy.pl/000000A/http/www.basarchive.org/bswbSearch.asp= 3fPubID=3dBSBA&amp;Volume=3d9&amp;Issue=3d6&amp;ArticleID=3d1&amp;UserID=3d0&amp;, Biblical Archaeological Society online archive; a reproduction of James F. Strange and Hershel Shanks, Synagogue Where Jesus Preached Found at Capernaum, BAR 9, No. 6 (Nov/Dec 1983): np.</p><p>Bias of texts compounded by biased reading of material evidence Terms indicating authority often re-defined when applied to women, e.g.Synagogue inscription honoring woman as archisynagogos, ruler of the synagogue, read as honorific rather than real titleClassic problem of authority of women prophets in I Cor 11:10Add details of Brootens workAdd quote from Sir William Mitchell Ramsey</p><p>Ross S. Kraemer, University of Pennsylvania, Fall 1995. Sampler of Inscriptions Documenting Jews and Judaism in the Greco-Roman DiasporaCIJ 692. Grey marble stele. Above the inscription is a 7-branched menorah and an ethrog. Bizye, Thrace. Tomb of Rebekah, the elder, who has fallen asleep.CIJ 741. Marble plaque from Smyrna (modern Izmir, Turkey). Greek. Probably second century C.E. Rufina, Ioudaia [Jewish woman/Jewess], head of the synagogue, built this tomb for her freed slaves and the slaved raised in her house. No one else has the right to bury anyone (here). Anyone who dares to do so will pay 1500 denaria to the sacred treasury and 1000 denaria to the Jewish people. A copy of this inscription has been placed in the (public) archives.CIJ 738. A Greek inscription from Ionia in Asia Minor (Turkey), probably third century C.E. Translation Kraemer, Maenads, Martyrs, Matrons, Monastics: A Sourcebook on Women's Religions in the Greco-Roman World 60. Tation, daughter of Straton, son of Empedon, having erected the assembly hall and the enclosure of the open courtyard with her own funds, have them as a gift to the Jews. The synagogue of the Jews honored Tation, daughter of Straton, son of Empedon, with a golden crown, and the privilege of sitting in the seat of honor.CIJ 756. Donative inscription on chancel screen post of white marble (4th5th century). Myndos, Caria. [From Th]eopempte, head of the synagogue, and her son Eusebios. [When publishing this inscription, Edwin Goodenough transformed Theopempte into a man. (Brooten 14)]CIJ 523. Sarcophagus fragment decorated by a shofar, a lulav, and a 7-branched menorah. Date unknown. Rome. Veturia Paulla F [daughter of Paulla?], consigned to her eternal home, who lived 86 years, 6 months, a proselyte of 16 years, named Sara, mother of the synagogues of Campus and Volumnius. In peace [let] her sleep."Shared Values, Divergent Paths" SymposiumSheila E. McGinn, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies &amp; Early ChristianityImage Copyright The Cleveland Museum of Art 2004; taken from http://www.clevelandart.org/explore/work.asp?searchText=christian+textile&amp;recNo=0&amp;tab=2&amp;display=Hanging with Christian Images | 1982.73</p><p>The significance of this rare hanging with Christian symbols outweighs its pieced condition. Beneath the arch decorated with interlacing bands stand three men dressed in tunics, their arms raised. They may represent the Three Hebrews who refused to worship a golden idol, and when cast into the fiery furnace, remained unharmed due to God's deliverance (Daniel 3:19-30). Above him is a chi-rho, the monogram and symbol formed by the first two letters of the Greek word for Christ (X and P), flanked by the letters alpha and omega. Beneath the arch, two eagles frame an ankh, an ancient Egyptian symbol of life. A chi-rho also appears above the arch between two peacocks and stylized animals, some suckling their young. The significance of Christian imagery was not intended to be didactic at this time, but instead, along with secular images, was meant to invoke personal security and prosperity.Egypt, Byzantine period, 6th century </p><p>Bias of texts compounded by biased reading of material evidence Terms indicating authority often re-defined when applied to women, e.g.Synagogue inscription honoring woman as archisynagogos, ruler of the synagogue, read as honorific rather than real titleClassic problem of authority of women prophets in I Cor 11:10Add details of Brootens workAdd quote from Sir William Mitchell Ramsey</p><p>Ross S. Kraemer, University of Pennsylvania, Fall 1995. Sampler of Inscriptions Documenting Jews and Judaism in the Greco-Roman Diaspora</p><p>CIJ 692. Grey marble stele. Above the inscription is a 7-branched menorah and an ethrog. Bizye, Thrace. Tomb of Rebekah, the elder, who has fallen asleep.CIJ 741. Marble plaque from Smyrna (modern Izmir, Turkey). Greek. Probably second century C.E. Rufina, Ioudaia [Jewish woman/Jewess], head of the synagogue, built this tomb for her freed slaves and the slaved raised in her house. No one else has the right to bury anyone (here). Anyone who dares to do so will pay 1500 denaria to the sacred treasury and 1000 denaria to the Jewish people. A copy of this inscription has been placed in the (public) archives.CIJ 738. A Greek inscription from Ionia in Asia Minor (Turkey), proba...</p></li></ul>