first-century judaism and christianity. first-century judaism
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DESCRIPTION Legal religion (religio licita) Staunchly monotheistic The Shema: “Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD is one!” (Deuteronomy 6:4) Jewish Scripture The Law The Prophets The Writings Exclusive and intolerant Apocalyptic!
First-century Judaism and Christianity First-century Judaism Legal religion (religio licita) Staunchly monotheistic The Shema: Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD is one! (Deuteronomy 6:4) Jewish Scripture The Law The Prophets The Writings Exclusive and intolerant Apocalyptic! First-century Judaism Resurrection Religio-political belief YHWH will bodily raise servants to life Triumph over pagan oppressors, creation-affirming Most clearly taught in Daniel 12:2-3: And many of those who sleep in the dust of the ground will awake, [some] to everlasting life, but the others to disgrace and everlasting contempt. And those who have insight will shine brightly like the brightness of the expanse of heaven, and those who lead the many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever. First-century Judaism The Pharisees Focus: the synagogue Nonviolently opposed to Rome Oral traditions Resurrection, angelic beings First-century Judaism The Sadducees High priests Aristocratic elite Focus: the Temple Supported Roman status quo No resurrection First-century Judaism The Essenes Withdrew from society Jerusalem and Temple are hopelessly corrupt! Communal Apocalyptic Qumran Monastic community? Dead Sea Scrolls Ruins at Qumran First-century Judaism The Vast Majority of Jews (95%) Farmers, fishermen, merchants, tradesmen struggling to make ends meet Fulfill basics required by their Jewish faith First-century Judaism Messianic Expectation Jewish renewal movements Messiah (Anointed) Kingly, priestly title Some Jews longed for the coming Messiah(s) to deliver them from the Romans I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom foreveryour house and your kingdom shall endure before me forever; your throne shall be established forever (2 Sam. 7:12-16) Messiah figures crushed by Roman authorities First-century Judaism John the Baptist (ca. 6 BC 30 AD) Apocalyptic preacher Location of ministry: Jordan River Preached Repentance You brood of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Therefore bring forth fruits in keeping with repentance, and do not begin to say to yourselves, We have Abraham for our father, for I say to you that God is able from these stones to raise up children to Abraham (Luke 3:7-8) Baptized, drawing on mikvaot Executed by Herod Antipas (r. 4 BC-39 AD) First-century Judaism Questions? Jesus of Nazareth Churchs view reigned supreme Questioned during Enlightenment, beyond Many interpretations! Controversial figure! Jesus of Nazareth Sources for Jesus Gospels of Mark, Matthew, Luke, John (ca AD) Q (ca. 40s-50s?) Hypothetical Source for common material in Matthew and Luke Gospel of Thomas (ca. 50s-170s AD) Gnostic Jesus of Nazareth Jesus: Cynic Sage Jesus teachings echo Cynic philosophy Disdain for wealth, flattery, conventional norms Traveled light, stressed carefree life Sought out social misfits Jesus taught through aphorisms Jesus of Nazareth No Historical Jesus Be agnostic about historical Jesus! Stories from Gospels have been edited not trustworthy! Jesus was fictitious amalgamation of 1 st -cent. religious figures and beings Jesus of Nazareth Jesus: Eschatological Prophet Jesus teachings and actions were those of a prophet Taught end of the age was near Action in Temple coming destruction of Temple Jesus was Jewish! Jesus of Nazareth Jesus: Messiah Figure Jesus was teacher, eschatological prophet Made messianic claims Jesus was Jewish! Jesus of Nazareth Instructors Interpretation: Jesus: Messiah Figure Jesus existed! Jesus was Jewish! Jesus words and actions in earliest sources prophet, messiah figure Best explains circumstances of his death, subsequent spread of Jesus movement Thomas is controversial, quite possibly composed in 2 nd century Jesus of Nazareth Jesus of Nazareth (ca. 6 BC ca. AD 30) Trained as carpenter Follower of John the Baptist Itinerant rabbi Three-year ministry (ca AD) 12 apostles Jesus of Nazareth Jesus: Prophet of the Kingdom Proclaimed coming Kingdom of God Kingdom parables Thy kingdom comeon earth as it is in heaven (Matthew 6:10) Included the outcasts Levis house (Mark 2) Kingdom ethics Jesus of Nazareth Jesus the Prophet YHWHs Coming Judgment Denounced religious leaders in Jerusalem and elsewhere Warned of destruction of the Temple?! O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, the way a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, and you were unwilling. Behold, your house is being left to you desolate! (Matt. 23:37- 38) Jesus of Nazareth Jesus and Miracles? Exorcisms Healings Resuscitations Jesus of Nazareth Jesus the Messiah Figure? Self-references Go and report to John [the Baptist] what you have seen and heard: the blind receive sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, the poor have the gospel preached to them (Luke 7:22) Jesus of Nazareth Jesus the Messiah Figure? Dramatic entrance into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday On the next day [Palm Sunday] the great multitude who had come to the feast [Passover], when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took the branches of the palm trees, and went out to meet him, and began to cry out, Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD, even the King of Israel. And Jesus, finding a young donkey, sat on it; as it is written, Fear not, daughter of Zion; Behold, your king is coming, seated on a donkeys colt (John 12:12-15) Jesus of Nazareth What became of Jesus? Action in the Temple Religious leaders infuriated, fearful Betrayed by Judas Iscariot Tried, condemned by Sanhedrin Turned over to Pilate sentenced to death Died Yet movement lived on Jesus of Nazareth Questions? The Apostolic Church The Birth of the Church Apostolic community convinced Jesus had been resurrected Jesus ascended to heaven 40 days later? Pentecost Holy Spirit descended? Peter preached resurrected, ascended Christ 3,000 Jews converted The Apostolic Church The Jerusalem Church Consisted of messianic Jews Temple and Torah still central Met in house churches Proclaimed Gospel At odds with religious, secular rulers Apostles imprisoned by Sadducees (Acts 5) James the Apostle executed (Acts 12) The Apostolic Church Simon Peter (Cephas) Fisherman Called by Jesus to be fisher of men (Mark 1:16-18) Spokesperson of apostles Impetuous, hot-tempered Denied Jesus 3 times The Apostolic Church Peter Central role in Acts Apostle to the Circumcision Miracles? Author of two NT Epistles? Journeyed to Rome executed (64/67 AD) The Apostolic Church Former Mamertine Prison, Rome The Apostolic Church St. Peters Basilica The Apostolic Church James the Just Brother of Jesus? Head of Jerusalem Church Lifestyle of prayer Author of Epistle of James? Executed (ca. 62 AD) The Apostolic Church John, Son of Zebedee ( 100 AD) Fisherman Youngest apostle? At the crucifixion? Present in Jerusalem, later in Ephesus Exiled Lived to extreme old age? Writings? Gospel of John 1-3 John Revelation The Apostolic Church Outreach to Non-Jews Conclusion: Gospel not just for Jews! Philip and Samaria (Acts 8) Peter and Cornelius (Acts 10) Had already reached Syria Peter Baptizes Cornelius The Apostolic Church Paul of Tarsus (d. ca. 64 AD) Saul Jew, Roman citizen Pharisee Student of Gamaliel Hated, persecuted Jesus followers Conversion experience (Acts 9) preacher, Apostle to the Gentiles The Apostolic Church Paul the Missionary 3 missionary journeys (40s and 50s) Traveled with trusted companions Made many converts, planted numerous churches To the Jew first and also to the Greek (Romans 1:16) Paul Preaching at Mars Hill, Athens (Acts 17) The Apostolic Church Paul and the Council of Jerusalem (ca. 49 AD) Conversion of Gentiles posed new questions Must they be circumcised? Must they keep Torah? Council called in Jerusalem James and Peter agreed with Paul (Acts 15) The just shall live by faith (Rom. 1:17) The Apostolic Church Paul Years later, arrested Roman custody Appealed to Caesar Rome, continued teaching Set free? Eventually re-arrested, executed in Rome (64/67 AD) Left behind churches throughout Europe and Asia Epistles make up half the NT The Apostolic Church S. Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome The Apostolic Church Creedal Statement in 1 Corinthians 15:3-8 Ca. 50s AD Outlines core of apostles faith Tradition passed on to Paul, from him to Corinthians: For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. After that he appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom remain until now, but some have fallen asleep; then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles; and last of allhe appeared to me also. The Apostolic Church Questions? The Fate of the Jews The Jewish War (66-70 AD) Causes Jewish rights revoked by Nero Temple Treasury raided Revolt! War! Christians refused to be involved Temple and Jerusalem destroyed by Titus in 70 AD Titus (r AD) The Fate of the Jews Arch of Titus (ca. 81 AD), Forum The Fate of the Jews The Spoils of Jerusalem, Arch of Titus (ca. 81 AD) The Fate of the Jews Triumph of Titus, Arch of Titus (ca. 81 AD) The Fate of the Jews The Western (or Wailing) Wall, Jerusalem The Fate of the Jews Bar Kochba Revolt ( AD) was Jewish last stand, a failure Aftermath Jews banned from Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina Formation of rabbinic Judaism Disappearance of Jewish Christianity The Fate of the Jews Questions? Primary Source The Gospel of Mark Initial reactions? How does the Gospel begin? Did that surprise you? Acco