Judaism and Christianity. Judaism Founders of Judaism Abraham and Moses Around 2000 B.C.E.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Judaism and Christianity </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Judaism </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Founders of Judaism Abraham and Moses Around 2000 B.C.E. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Abraham Abraham lived around 2000 B.C.E in a city called Ur in Mesopotamia (now Iraq). In Abrahams time people worshipped many gods. Abraham, however, believed in one god, called Yahweh. Abraham and his wife Sarah went to Canaan (now Israel). Yahweh made a covenant (agreement) with him, Abraham would have many descendants who would live in Canaan (which they called the Promised Land) if Abraham remained faithful to Yahweh. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Yahwehs Covenant With His People The Torah The first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible are called the Torah. The most sacred text in the Jewish religious tradition. The first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible are called the Torah. The most sacred text in the Jewish religious tradition. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> All the people who have descended from Abraham through his son Isaac are known as Jews (after one of Abrahams great-grandsons, Judah). Jewish people are also sometimes known as Israelites or Children of Israel, after Abrahams grandson. Traditionally, everyone born of a Jewish mother is a Jew, whether they actively participate in the religion or not. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Abrahams Genealogy ABRAHAM SARAH HAGAR Isaac Esau Jacob 12 Tribes of Israel Ishmael 12 Arabian Tribes Muslim Jewish </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Moses The Jewish people did not live in their Promised Land forever, as they had hoped. Around 1300 B.C.E. they had to move to Egypt in search of food during a time of famine. There they became slaves of the Egyptian Pharaoh. They were freed by a Jewish man named Moses, and again headed back towards the Promised Land (Book of Exodus in the Bible). Yahweh gave Moses his commandments on top of Mount Sinai. They finally arrived and settled in Canaan, building a temple in which to worship Yahweh in the city of Jerusalem. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Moses and the 10 Commandment s A new covenant with Yahweh </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Before Now </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> King Davids Empire </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Solomons Kingdom Solomons Kingdom </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Kingdoms of Judah &amp; Israel Kingdoms of Judah &amp; Israel </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> History Begins with stories of Abraham &amp; Moses (led Hebrews out of Egypt to promised land of Israel ) David founded the kingdom of Israel Kingdom became powerful until conquered by Babylonians (Jews sent into exile) Return to kingdom, but ruled by foreign armies/empires for thousands of years </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Well Known Stories of Judaism Exodus - escape from Egypt Abraham and Isaac David and Goliath </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Basic Beliefs Monotheistic: belief in one god God is ethical and good, takes care of people Need to follow God s law and try to live a holy life Ten Commandments Rituals: Circumcision (outward sign of a mans participation with Gods covenant, Bar Mitzvah (boys - age 13)/Bat Mitzvah (girls - age 12), prayer Religious leaders: rabbis </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Torah: is written in Hebrew </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Symbols of Judaism Star of David Menorah </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Synagogue: where Jews worship </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Holy Sites Jerusalem Western (Wailing) Wall (site of Solomon s Temple) </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> The Temple Mount in Jerusalem Today Solomons Temple Wall: The Wailing Wall </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> How did the Romans treat Jews? Jews refused to worship Roman gods. At first the Romans didn t make the Jews worship Roman gods, but did make the Jews pay taxes instead. They still had to follow Roman rule. By 66 C.E. Jewish discontent with Roman rule resulted in rebellion. Roman forces captured Jerusalem and destroyed the Jewish temple. Growing numbers of Jews left Judea. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Christianity </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Founders of Christianity Jesus of Nazareth, Around 4 B.C.E. - 30 C.E. (Christians believe he is the son of God) Spread by Paul in 1 st Century C.E. (Paul was a Jew who converted to Christianity) </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Miracles of Jesus </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Brief History Shares early history with Judaism (Torah = 1 st five books of Old Testament). Ten commandments. Life of Jesus: Jewish carpenter preaches new message about God. New message (He is Son of God and through faith/forgiveness of sins one can reach heaven). Jesus crucified for his beliefs (about age 33yrs). Message of Christianity spread throughout Roman Empire by Paul (New Testament letters). </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> The Beginnings of Christianity in Bethlehem </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Jesus Mission Agony in the Garden Crucifixion Baptism </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> St. Paul: Apostle to the Gentiles </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> The Spread of Christianity </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Basic Beliefs Monotheistic: belief in one god Jesus is the Son of God, performed miracles (his birth, walk on water, water to wine, dead to life, etc.) Jesus died on behalf of sinners Holy Trinity: God as Father, Son, Holy Spirit Man sins, he needs redemption. Jesus helps to forgive sins Get to heaven through forgiveness of sin Rituals: Baptism, communion, prayer Priests - religious leaders </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Holy Trinity Most Christians believe in: a supreme God, who came to earth in the person of Jesus Christ and is active in the world as the Holy Spirit. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Sacred Text Bible (includes Torah as first five books) Old Testament: Jewish tradition and prophesy New Testament: Jesus life and ministry </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> How did the Romans treat Christians? Christians remained a small community under Roman rule and met in secret 50 C.E. - 300 C.E.: Emperors tortured/persecuted Christians because they refused to make sacrifices to the emperor Christianity outlawed in Roman Empire Emperor Constantine converts to Christianity Christianity eventually becomes official religion of Roman Empire! </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Symbols of Christianity </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> In spite of persecution, Christians grew in numbers rapidly. Christians actively looked for converts. They told others about the benefits of being Christian. Christians came from every walk of life in ancient Rome, but Christianity had great appeal to Rome's poor. Life After Death: Christianity promised life after death in heaven. In the Roman religion, only gods went to heaven. Emperors were considered gods. Everyone else went to the underworld. Equality: Christianity promised equal opportunity. You could join Christianity and be equally a Christian. In the Roman Empire you had to be born into the nobility. After nearly 300 years of persecution, in 313 CE, Emperor Constantine ruled that Christianity was legal and that Christians would no longer be persecuted for their beliefs. This does not mean that Rome finally had religious freedom. It meant only that it was now legal to worship Roman gods or to be Christian. Every other religion was still illegal. The lack of religious freedom in ancient Rome contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire. </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Holy Sites * Bethlehem: Birth of Jesus Site of crucifixion: Jerusalem Christians worship in a church </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Christianity Today Today Christianity, which began as a branch of Judaism has more followers than any other religion in the world. Close to 2.1 billion people identify as Christian </li> </ul>

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