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  • COMPARATIVE JUDAISM Reform Judaism Conservative Judaism Neo-Orthodox Judaism
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  • Reform Judaism
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  • Reform Judaism A History Started between 1810 and 1820 Started by Israel Jacobson Popularized by Abraham Geiger who expanded Jacobsons ideas Israel Jacobson
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  • Reform Judaism A History Why did it start? Many Jews were converting to Christianity 10% in Germany, 50% in Berlin Only option was to be Orthodox or convert Reform was a new option Reform let Jews participate in a secular culture and still be Jewish Abraham Geiger
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  • Reform Judaism B Torah God and Humanity interact with each other Ongoing process Individual must decide which commandments are meaningful to follow
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  • Reform Judaism C God Concept of God up to the individual God ranges from a puppet master to a force
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  • Reform Judaism D Services A lot of music (first time instrumental music since destruction of 2 nd Temple.) Mostly in English Shorter service than Conservative or Orthodox
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  • Reform Judaism D Services continued Men and women sit together Rabbi or Cantor may be male, female, gay, or heterosexual Boys and girls may read Torah Both become a bar/bat mitzvah Men and boys choose whether to wear kippah and/or tallit
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  • Reform Judaism E Shabbat Choose whether to observe Shabbat May use electricity Kabbalat Shabbat is a Revised version
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  • Reform Judaism F Womens role Egalitarian women and men are viewed as equal
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  • Reform Judaism G Intermarriage Rabbis may perform intermarriage Its going to happen we cant stop it Need to make sure interfaith couples feel welcome and can still celebrate Judaism Patrilineal and Matrilineal descent Either parent may be Jewish and the children are Jewish.
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  • Conservative Judaism
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  • Conservative Judaism A History Founded by Zecharias Frankel Middle of 19 th Century Thought Jews needed a middle road between Orthodox and Reform Zecharias Frankel
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  • Conservative Judaism B Torah God wrote the Torah The Torah changed as it was copied and recopied Only the community as a whole, (the rabbis) can make changes The community determines which laws people follow
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  • Conservative Judaism C God It is up to the individual, however God is definitely an active presence
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  • Conservative Judaism D Services Music is mostly not permitted Men and women sit together Service is mostly in Hebrew Rabbi or Cantor may be male or female Women and girls may read Torah Both may become a Bar or Bat Mitzvah
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  • Conservative Judaism E Shabbat Shomer Shabbas (keeping Shabbat) May only drive to attend services
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  • Conservative Judaism F Womens Role Women and men are viewed as equal
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  • Conservative Judaism G Intermarriage Rabbis will not perform an intermarriage Matrilineal descent only
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  • Neo-Orthodox Judaism
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  • Neo-Orthodox Judaism A History Founded in the mid 1800s Samson Raphael Hirsh Knew Judaism had to change But only within strict guidelines set by Torah
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  • Neo-Orthodox Judaism B Torah Everything in the Torah is written by God Nothing can be changed
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  • Neo-Orthodox Judaism C God God is a force who can influence or act upon humanity
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  • Neo-Orthodox Judaism D Services Men and women sit separately Services are all in Hebrew They include every prayer Only boys may read Torah Only male Rabbis Rabbis do not face the the congregation while leading prayers
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  • Neo-Orthodox Judaism E Shabbat Shomer Shabbos (Strictly keeps Shabbat)
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  • Neo-Orthodox Judaism F Womens Role To focus on the home and family Prepare Shabbat dinner Keep kashrut
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  • Neo-Orthodox Judaism G Intermarriage Rabbis will not perform intermarriage Matrilineal descent only

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