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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 Overview In 1986 the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) in Chernobyl, Ukraine experienced a devastating explosion and fire at nuclear reactor 4. That single event changed the lives of innumerable people and altered the environment forever. The world became aware of this disaster two days after the explosion, when Fosmark Nuclear Power Plant, 60 miles north of Stockholm, Sweden detected high levels of radiation in the atmosphere. Mikhail Gorbachev broke USSR’s silence about the gravity of the explosion one month later when he admitted,” we have confronted in reality the sinister power of uncontrolled nuclear energy.” Students in grades 3-8 will learn of the disaster through five lessons. First they will become familiar with the geography of Eastern Europe. Secondly, they will create 2 different timelines of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP). Next, they will read about the procedures used to extinguish the graphite fire and the lessons learned. Fourth, they will study the cities and countries that were affected by the fallout beginning on April 26 until May 4,1986 becoming more aware of the magnitude of the radiation exposure. Lastly, the students will study the biomedical results of the CNPP disaster in 1986 and compare them to biomedical findings from the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan in 1945. A Chernobyl glossary is provided for reference. As extended activities, students can search for scientific terminology, conduct experiments which cover some of the environmental challenges that countries face in the wake of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, such as: the greenhouse effect, heat energy, waste management, and radiation leakage. There is an optional video for older students to view. Additionally, writing assignments and possible student debate panels can be integrated into this course of study by using one or more of the Chernobyl topic suggestions. 1

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004

OverviewIn 1986 the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) in Chernobyl, Ukraine experienced a devastating explosion and fire at nuclear reactor 4. That single event changed the lives of innumerable people and altered the environment forever. The world became aware of this disaster two days after the explosion, when Fosmark Nuclear Power Plant, 60 miles north of Stockholm, Sweden detected high levels of radiation in the atmosphere. Mikhail Gorbachev broke USSRs silence about the gravity of the explosion one month later when he admitted, we have confronted in reality the sinister power of uncontrolled nuclear energy. Students in grades 3-8 will learn of the disaster through five lessons. First they will become familiar with the geography of Eastern Europe. Secondly, they will create 2 different timelines of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP). Next, they will read about the procedures used to extinguish the graphite fire and the lessons learned. Fourth, they will study the cities and countries that were affected by the fallout beginning on April 26 until May 4,1986 becoming more aware of the magnitude of the radiation exposure. Lastly, the students will study the biomedical results of the CNPP disaster in 1986 and compare them to biomedical findings from the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan in 1945. A Chernobyl glossary is provided for reference. As extended activities, students can search for scientific terminology, conduct experiments which cover some of the environmental challenges that countries face in the wake of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, such as: the greenhouse effect, heat energy, waste management, and radiation leakage. There is an optional video for older students to view. Additionally, writing assignments and possible student debate panels can be integrated into this course of study by using one or more of the Chernobyl topic suggestions. While on a study tour to Chernobyl, Ukraine, 2004, I observed some of the postdisaster effects. I was shown the plans for the international effort to build a New Safe Confinement for the deteriorating sarcophagus at reactor 4. The country is securing itself by decommissioning the CNPP facility while pursuing stricter pollution standards in all forms of industry. I visited several area community centers that opened in 1994, which didnt exist before Chernobyl. I met people who never left their irradiated land and a married couple who returned to their contaminated farm after living as refugees for a year. Eighteen years after Chernobyl, I met people who have endured huge problems. They will have to face different Chernobyl related challenges in the next decade. It is certain that Chernobyl will remain a household word for generations to come. Chernobyl has indeed changed us forever.

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004

Objectives:Students will *learn about the history of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant prior to and after the explosion at reactor 4 *look at the misguided strategies in extinguishing the fire *study the geographic reaches of this single event and the contamination dispensed by wind and rain *learn about the environmental and biomedical effects of this nuclear disaster *compare the radiation caused biomedical effects to those of Hiroshima-Nagasaki *learn nuclear, scientific and geographic terminology Time:

Five 45-minute sessions

Materials: Maps/atlas of world, Europe, Eastern Europe, Ukraine Timeline Scramble Sheet Vertical Timeline Sheet Map of Exposure and Effects of Chernobyl Accident Wordsearch 1 Eastern Europe Geography Misguided Strategies in Dealing With Graphite Fire Six-link Chain Diagram Sheet Wordsearch 2 Scientific Vocabulary Comparison of findings: Hiroshima-Nagasaki to Chernobyl Venn diagram Chernobyl Writing Topics Chernobyl Science in Action Experiments Additional Resource: Chernobyl Glossary of terminology

Assesment Student will select a project using the Multiple Intelligences Model (see project contract and rubric in supplement)

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004

Lesson 1

The following 2 activities may be completed individually or in partners or small groups.

Introduction to Geography of Eastern Europe 20 minutes Activity 1 Complete the Wordsearch: Eastern European Geography Activity 2 Map of eastern Europe available through www.enchantedlearning.com or use an appropriate blank map of eastern Europe. Locate Countries: Belarus, Russian Federation (Russia), Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Moldava (Moldavia), Romania and Ukraine Locate Cities: Kiev and Chernobyl Locate Major Water Sources: Dniepro (Dnieper) River Dnister River Black Sea Sea of Asov Suggested color schemes. Color water (seas and rivers) blue. Color Ukraine light green. Color Russia yellow. Color Belarus gray. Color Poland orange. Color Slovakia pink. Color Hungary purple. Color Romania dark green. Color Moldova red.

20 minutes

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004

Lesson 1 Wordsearch

Part 1

Find the eastern European places found in word bank. KEY: EASTERN EUROPE GEOGRAPHY

D N I E S N U

E P E R G U B I V B E L P R I P Y A T B C M R K G O M E L A S S S C T C H E R O P A W O B E L A R U S R A Y N A D R A N L I T H U N I S T R U V K N K E R A R A M I O N R U S S I A N F E

Z H I T O I V A D L O M I N O B Y L R A T R V U I S A S A N I A A A S E A O V D E R A T I O N4

M K I E V N S K

Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 Lesson 1 Part 1

EASTERN EUROPE GEOGRAPHY

D E S N U T S G H V D N Y M A O I E A S M T A

N V G Y E K M O S C O W A O T O P N R M S S P

I Q Y T R R H M A A A C R Y S K A I N A M O R

E R U L A B R E S T M H B R Y A N S K T A E U

P K K O V S C L P B E O E A E O T T E A L R S

E N M I P N H S F O P O L A N D A R N N I K S

R I V E R C S K D K N K A D S R H U I A O V I

X D B F I R H Y Y Z Y H R O T O L V K G K A A

G U F G P S C T P C E I U C R R I V E R L M N

U I E Z Y B H R O H E E S H A V T O K A I A I

B L B L A C K D S E A S O K T A H P S S B C F

T F E Y T R Y A M R T K Z A A S U K R A I N E

B S R V L N O I I N V A U I T V A Y P B R H D

W K T K A B U V L O O R M S O I N R U E I I E

M I N S K R Y A O B Y P R U S S I A K Z B N R

V E L U D Z A D Y Y E I I I P N A O O V V A A

L V K K R U T L S L A T V I A Y K H O O A K T

I D J A N A S O L H E K Y N T A D A S O V H I

E I Z H I T O M I R P I O B O C E I E D N A O

D P U N R L E P A E A I O R M H R V A E E T N

CHERNOBYL LITHUANIA BELARUS RUSSIA PRIPYAT NISTRU RIVER SEA OF ASOV MOLDAVIA KIEV DNIEPER RIVER DESNU RIVER GOMEL RUSSIAN FEDERATION POLAND BREST BLACK SEA MINSK LATVIA UKRAINE BRYANSK ROMANIA MOSCOW ZHITOMIR

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 Lesson 1 Part 2

Map of Ukraine Coloring Activity

Name:_______________________________

Lesson 2 The following lesson may be completed with learners as partners. 6

Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 30-45 minutes Number these Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant events in chronological order. (1 14)Answer Key

4 1 2 3 6 9 5 10 7 12 14 8 13 11

1984 Reactor 4 is opened. 1977 Reactor 1 is opened. 1978 Reactor 2 is opened. 1981 Reactor 3 is opened. April 26, 1986 Reactor 4 exploded @ 1:23 a.m. October 1986 Sarcophagus is completed. April 25, 1986 Reactor 4 Routine Safety Test begun. 1998 Stage 1 of Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP). April 30, 1986 City of Pripyat is evacuated. 2000 Stage 2 of Shelter Improvement Plan (SIP). 2008 Projected completion of New Safe Confinement (NSC). May 10, 1986 Reactor 4 Graphite fire is extinguished. March 2002 Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP). December 2000-Shutdown entire Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP).

Lesson 2

Part 1

Number these Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant events in chronological order, 1- 14.

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004___ 1984 Reactor 4 is opened.

___ 1977 Reactor 1 is opened. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 1978 Reactor 2 is opened. 1981 Rector 3 is opened. April 26, 1986 Reactor 4 exploded @ 1:23 a.m. October 1986 Sarcophagus is completed. April 25, 1986 Reactor 4 Routine Safety Test begun. 1998 Stage 1 Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP). April 30, 1986 City of Pripyat is evacuated. 2000 Stage 2 Shelter Improvement Plan (SIP). 2008 Projected completion of New Safe Confinement (NSC). May 10, 1986 Reactor 4 Graphite fire is extinguished. March 2002 Decommissioning of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP). December 2000 Shutdown entire Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP).

Lesson 2 Part 2 VERTICAL TIMELINE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTPlot the CNPP events on the vertical timeline.

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004

LESSON 3

Note: Information from Chapter 2, Radioactive Volcano, The Legacy of Chernobyl by Zhores Medvedev, 1990.

Strategies In Dealing With Graphite Fire Part 1 may be read to the entire class.

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004

Water *April 26, use of water was deemed useless because it flooded the basement and increased the contamination of the site. Core of reactor was about 2,300 degrees Celsius and water evaporated immediately and produced carbon monoxide, which fueled flames.

Sand and Clay *April 27, sand and clay were dropped to quench fire. Mistake for sand and clay being dropped. It reduced the release of heat sharply which led to the second meltdown. Estimated 200 tons of sand was dropped. Sand, clay, lead and dolomite were heavy and new fear of placing increased pressure on the reactor foundation. If the red-hot reactor core (2,500 degrees Celsius) burned the concrete foundation, then it would drop into bubbler pool of water, which was below the reactor vault. This would cause a new, more powerful explosion and complete dispersal of the full inventory of uranium, plutonium, and large quantities of radioactive products. Pumping Water from Bubbler Pools *20,000 tons of radioactive water was pumped out of the bubbler pools. The core would have to burn through two foundations before it could reach the water table underneath the building.

Lead and Boron *If only lead, boron carbide, and dolomite were used, then temperature of reactor could have continued to fall.

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004

Boron materials absorb neutrons efficiently. It was hoped that they would inhibit the chain reactions in parts of the core. Lead was designed to cool the core. The dolomite would be broken down at higher temperatures which then would absorb heat and generate inert gas which would blanket the fire. *Liquid nitrogen would have helped if used sooner than May 4. Liquid Nitrogen *Miners, metro-workers and service men were mobilized to drill into the ground in order to pump liquid nitrogen under the reactor, to cool the foundation and walls. Effort to extinguish graphite fire first would have allowed possibility to reduce core temperature sooner rather than concentrating on plugging the crater. Over 5,000 tons of materials were dropped onto the core: 2,600 tons of sand, clay and dolomite 2,400 tons of lead 40 tons of boron May 10, 1986 Fire Extinguished *Reactor core smoldered for almost 5 more days after extinguishing the fire. *Foundation remained intact. *No contamination of ground water resulted.

Lesson 3

Part 2 may be completed with learners in paired groupings.

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 Sequence the strategies used to extinguish the graphite fire.

Lesson 4

MAP OF FALLOUT EXPOSURE 30-45 min.

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 Part 1, learner should outline the countries on map: Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Poland, Lithuania, Moldavia. Learner should select a color code for each of the areas, dates and countries.

Area 1 2 3 4 5 6

Date April 26 April 27 April 27 April 29 May 2 May 4

Countries

Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania, Russia Ukraine, Belarus, Poland Ukraine, Belarus Ukraine, Russia Ukraine Ukraine, Moldavia

Lesson 4; Part 2

MAP OF FALLOUT EXPOSURE

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004

Lesson

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Biomedical findings of Hiroshima-Nagasaki and Chernobyl. 14

Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 10 minutes Part 1: Biomedical findings can be read to the whole class.

Hiroshima Nagasaki Atomic Bomb *Bombs dropped by air on August 6 and 9, 1945. *Bombs detonated in atmosphere over city. *Those irradiated received one high exposure dose to whole body. * 144,000 died by end of 1945. *The younger the age of the survivor at the time of bombing (0-9 yrs) the higher the incidence of leukemia. *After 5-7 yrs., leukemia increased in children, followed by adults. *After 5-7 yrs. other cancers increased. *10-15 yrs.(long latency) after bombing, thyroid cancer increased. *Survivors have increase of thyroid cancer for decades after bombing. *Increased cardiovascular disease. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Explosion *Power plant exploded on April 26, 1986. *Explosion at ground level sent plume of radioactivity 1 km into atmosphere and followed wind and rain patterns through Europe. *Radiation released over ten days was 200 times the two bombs exploded in Japan. *31 officially died from acute radiation poisoning by August 1986. *The younger the age of survivor (0-18) receiving radioactive Iodine 131, the highest incidence of thyroid cancer. *Exposed children developed radiation cataracts. *Less than 5 years (short latency) after the disaster, thyroid cancer increase in children. *No leukemia rise in children and adults. *15 years after explosion, no increase of thyroid cancer in adults. *Suicide rate 50% higher than expected among liquidators. *Increased cardiovascular and neuropsychological diseases.Facts found from Biomedical Consequences of the Chernobyl Reactor Accident, p. 131-155 by Kelly H. Clifton,

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004Lesson 5 Part 2 30 minutes for Part 2, to be completed with learners in partner groups.

The Venn diagram will serve to compare and contrast the biomedical effects of radiation exposure upon humans.

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 Extended Activities KEY: SCIENTIFIC VOCABULARY

h a l

f - l

r a m e l t d o w n

f u e l r o d C

f e i g r a p h s f u s i o n i w a o c o r e e l c u n a d i s a r c o p h a t p o w e r i m o o n d e a d i o n u c l i d e r a p o l l u t i o n t o e l s i u s r

i

i t e s o t e r o p e g u s

t n e m e l e

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 Extended Activities SCIENTIFIC VOCABULARY

h d k f i x i m e l t d o w n t w a b h

a i p o k e r w r s a o a e o r e r o g

l f m g r n a b s d s f u e l r o d p C

f f i h r s e i a b z o s s u a l w t e

a f i s o l f v g x d g k s d j o a l

l g f f k d c f d o a s t b e i g u m s

i e q u h q u d v r h p e q r o t p v i

f I s s I o n y x t e o I p L n r o c u

e b z i j a s u e w m w p o h u e l d s

t g x o p k r p k s s e i e c c d l l r

h p r n h y t o l a s r k g z l n u j e

e s h o n c w u a r v c j h s i i t i g

i g m u g o x q b c e u n n e d o i o f

s r l d c r a d i o t i o n r e b o w e

h a i s z e a a m p r l a s o n n n a n

o p b c w c h b k h i s q c p m m h e h

r m e x a b i c l a t m o d e r a t o r

m i s o t o p e r g p j e x m v y f y e

y t s v e a p x o u i d r e n f r s s n

u e d m r l e r p s y s v t n e m e l e

Celsius core element fission fuel rod fusion graphite half-life isotope meltdown moderator nuclear pollution water radiation radionuclide sarcophagus Extended Activities

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 Science in Action Experiment 1 - Test the greenhouse effect.

Materials: 2 glass bowls, piece of glass, 2 thermometers. Place a thermometer in each bowl and place both bowls in the sun. Carefully place the piece of glass over one bowl. After an hour, check the temperature in both bowls. Which is hotter? The glass cover acts like the greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. It traps heat from the Sun, raising the air temperature in the bowl in the same way gases trap heat, raising the temperature of the environment.

Experiment 2 - Test invisible forces. Materials: bar magnet, a piece of paper, and iron filings.Sprinkle the iron filings on the piece of paper. Hold the paper over a bar magnet and see what happens to the iron filings. You have just detected a magnetic force that is invisible to the eye, just as radiation is.

Experiment 3- Heat Energy Materials: test tube, sand, thermometer, and stopwatch.Put some sand in the test tube and take its temperature. With your thumb over the end, time yourself in shaking the test tube for two minutes. Again take the sands temperature. Has it changed? Why? This experiment shows how movement energy (shaking) becomes heat energy. In the same way, movement energy of a chain reaction becomes heat energy.

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004

Experiment 4- Waste Materials: 2 apples, 2 pieces of paper, 2 plastic bags, and soil.Take one apple, one piece of paper, and one plastic bag and place them on the windowsill. Bury the other set in some soil. After a week, record what happened to each item, both in and out of the soil. Different objects decay at different rates of time. Some objects such as the plastic bag never decay unless treated in some way. All waste needs to be disposed of carefully to avoid creating garbage that never disappears.

Experiment 5- Exploring Leakage Materials: a small lamp, a cardboard box, a pinIn a darkened room, turn on the lamp. Cover it with the cardboard box, hiding the light. Are there any weak points in the box, and how can you tell? Pierce one side of the box with the pin. How much light comes through? The rays of light act like rays of radiation. This experiment shows how difficult it is to contain radiation. Notes:

Experiments taken from Nuclear Waste by Kate Scarborough, 2003. Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Waste, The Earth At Risk Environmental Video Series, Schlessinger Video Productions, 1993, is highly appropriate for upper grade learners (Grades 5-8). Extended Activities Topics for writing assignments or to discussion sessions. TOPIC 1 In October of 1986, six months after the April 26 explosion, the sarcophagus over reactor 4 was entombed. 400,000 cubic meters of 20

Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 reinforced concrete was used. The government maintains that the sarcophagus stopped contaminating the environment. Yet there are gaps in the structure totaling approximately 1000 square meters. Has the environment been kept from further contamination given this information? TOPIC 2 In the winter of 1986, the decontamination of the exclusion zone began. The liquidators bulldozed and buried entire villages. In addition, the topsoil was removed in most parts. This soil has been buried but it is not known where. What measures must the people of Ukraine who live on or near the exclusion zone take to ensure their health today? TOPIC 3 Polyssia, located in Ukraine, is the largest swamp forest in Europe, approximately 100,000 sq. km. Since radiation moves quickly into plants this forest was most affected by the radioactive fallout. Describe a method for saving this contaminated forest. TOPIC 4 Looking back on the chronology of Chernobyl, what single event after the Chernobyl nuclear explosion would you change if you were Mikhail Gorbachev, the General Secretary of the Soviet Union? Why? TOPIC 5 There was a news blackout from April 26 through May 6, 1986. There were no direct reports given during those first two days. May Day parades and an international bicycle race were held in Kiev, 50 miles south of Chernobyl. As a result, many innocent people were exposed to radiation. What might have been the reason(s) for not canceling these events? TOPIC 6 One obvious advantage of the accident occurring at night was that there were fewer workers on the site. There were usually 2,000 workers who worked during the day shift vs. 450 workers during the night shift. In your opinion, if the explosion had happened during the day shift how might it have changed the outcome of April 26th? Why? Extended Activities

TOPIC 7 Why did shift workers come to work at 8:00 a.m. the next morning of April 27th? Why werent they notified? Also, why werent the residents of the city of Pripyat who were a couple of miles away evacuated immediately instead of 3 days later? 21

Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 TOPIC 8 There was a huge graphite fire in reactor 4 that shot flames onto the roofs of the other reactors. This put the other reactors at great risk especially plant 3. Why were the roofs of the nuclear reactors made of the highly flammable bitumen, a banned industrial construction material? TOPIC 9 Sweden broke the news to the world of a nuclear disaster on April 28,1986. How did Sweden detect it? What effect did this news have upon the Soviet Union and Europe and the entire world?

atom: The smallest part of a substance that can take part in a chemical reaction. It is made of three different particles: neutrons, protons, and electrons. Belarus: Country located north of Ukraine, west of Russia; received radiation fallout days 1-3 after CNPP explosion. 22

Chernobyl Glossary

Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 Black Sea: Major body of water located south of Ukraine. Boron: material which absorbs neutrons efficiently. Brest: City in western Belarus; received radiation fallout on day 2. Cesium: Cs-137 has a half-life of 30 years. It is the major isotope responsible for environmental contamination caused by nuclear bomb tests and reactor accidents. chain reaction: A rapid series of events in which each event causes the next one. In a nuclear reactor, the chain reaction is the continuous splitting of atoms. Chernobyl: City in northern Ukraine, in exclusion zone, received radiation fallout on days 1 - 6. CNPP= Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. control rods: The devices that make sure that the chain reaction does not happen too fast. coolant fluid: The fluid that takes heat away from the reactor core and uses it to heat water to create steam. decommissioning: The process of shutting down a nuclear power station. decontamination: Making radioactive waste less dangerous by removing topsoil, destruction of trees and bush land, construction of dams, fencing in an exclusion zone. Dnieper River: Major river, which flows through Belarus and Ukraine into the Black Sea. element: A substance that contains only one kind of atom. energy: The power to do work. exclusion zone: Land within a 30km radius of CNPP. fuel rods: The containers in which uranium is kept. generator: A machine that changes mechanical energy into electrical energy. Gomel: A city in northeast Belarus; received radiation fallout on day 3. half-life: The time it takes a substance to lose one-half of its radiation. For example, Carbon 14 is a radioactive atom with a half-life of 5,700 years. If you start with 100 atoms of Carbon 14, after 5,700 years, you would have about half of them left. Another 5,700 years, you would have 25 atoms left, and so on. Ex.*Plutonium 238 half-life of 86 years Plutonium 239 half-life of 24,360 years *Plutonium 240 half-life of 6,575 years *=found in Chernobyl nuclear reactor core 23

Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 Iodine-131: The most biologically hazardous radionuclide because of its volatility, rapid movement through food chains and selective accumulation in the thyroid gland. It has a half-life of about 8 days. irradiation: radiation exposure. isotope: A form of an element. Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Kiev: Capital city of Ukraine; receiving radiation fallout on day 5. Latvia: Baltic country north of Belarus. liquidator: Any of the military, scientist, civilian population who worked in the Chernobyl clean up effort. Lithuania: Baltic country northwest of Belarus; received radiation fallout on day 1. meltdown: The consequence of overheating of the reactor core which liquefies cladding (material which prevents corrosion and escape of fission materials) and support structures of the fuel rods and also the fuel. It may lead to the collapse of the reactor core, which burns through the reactor vessel and foundations due to its very high temperature (higher than 2000 degrees Celsius.) A full meltdown has only occurred in fiction. moderator: A material, water or graphite, with nuclei of low atomic weight. In reactors it surrounds the fuel rods to slow down fast neutrons released in fission. Chernobyl used graphite as a moderator. Minsk: Capital city of Belarus. Moldavia: Republic southwest of Ukraine; received fallout on day 6. Moscow: Capital city of Russian Federation (Russia). NSC = New Safe Confinement: largest moveable structure to shield existing sarcophagus while keeping out water while deconstruction of unstable parts in reactor 4 is being employed. nuclear fission: The splitting of an atoms nucleus to release large amounts of energy nuclear fusion: A reaction caused by combining two atoms to form one heavier nucleus and produce a huge amount of energy. Nuclear fusion happens continuously in the Sun. nuclear reactor: A device that generates electrical energy by splitting atoms. Poland: Country west of Ukraine; received radiation fallout on days 1 and 2. Pripyat: City built near Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant for the nuclear power plant workers and their families; abandoned since 1986. Pripyat River: River that flows into the Dnieper River from Belarus. 24

Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 radiation: The invisible rays of energy released by atoms during nuclear fission. radioactive: Made of atoms whose cores break down, giving off harmful radiation. radionuclide:The product of fission in the reactor core; . reactor core: Where the fuel is; where heat is produced. Romania: Country west of Moldavia; received radiation fallout on day 6. Russia/Russian Federation: Country east of Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia. sarcophagus: Concrete coffin constructed around reactor 4 to prevent further release of radioactivity. shutdown: The closing of a nuclear power plant. SIP Stage 1: SHELTER IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Repair of ventilation stacks in Unit 3 and 4. SIP Stage 2: SHELTER IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Designing, procurement of equipment, construction and commissioning of facilities and systems. Beam supports of shelter roof were reinforced. Slavutich: City built for CNPP workers after the disaster, located west of Chernobyl, Ukraine. uranium: Is a large atom with 92 electrons, 92 protons, and 143 neutrons. It is unstable and releases neutrons. Warsaw: Capital city of Poland. Zhitomir: city in Ukraine southwest of the reactor; received radiation fallout on day 6.

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT PROJECT CONTRACT Name_______________________________ Subject/Unit/Theme__________________ Select one of the following Smarts for your final project.

__Word Smart: Write a 5 paragraph report or a letter. (Verbal-Linguistic) Demonstrate understanding of language idioms. Write a poem using a specific poetic device. Write a short story or picture book. Read a book/biography and write a review/report. Other: __Logic Smart: Compare and contrast key data/findings.

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004(Logic-Mathematical) Create a chart, graph, timeline accompanied by report/description. Research, interpret and teach a math or science theory. Other: __Music Smart: Compose/perform/demonstrate an original piece of music. (Musical-Rhythmic) Select and play music by another composer. Demonstrate knowledge of musical instrument w/ report to support findings. Other: __Nature Smart: Research information re: relevant topic. (Naturalist) Written report to include the use of drawings, photographs, or &/or video. Other: __Self-Smart: Share your opinions and feelings about issue(s). (Intrapersonal) Reflect on changes in your self-understanding. Write an autobiography of someone relevant to topic. List steps or draw a flowchart to achieve a specific goal. Other: __People Smart: Organize and conduct a survey; write and report on results. (Interpersonal) Develop empathy for and understanding of two points of view; write a report. Justify actions of certain historical person(s); write your defense. Other: __Picture Smart: Create original piece(s) visual art to an important person/event. (Visual-Spatial) Interpret art from this time period by another artist & write interpretation. Medium: paper, canvas, photography, video, sculpture, collage, wood, textile Other: __Body Smart: Create and demonstrate a movement/dance & write description of (Bodily-Kinesthetic) movement/dance Show knowledge of (physical) game & write rules of game. Plan & write a field trip that would teach others important facts. Other: Signature of learner: _______________________________________________________ Signature of parent: _______________________________________________________ Signature of teacher: ______________________________________________________

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE ASSESSMENTName_____________________________________________ Topic_____________________________________________ Ideas/ContentComment:

_________/25

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004

OrganizationComment:

_________/25

ConventionsComment:

_________/25

PresentationComment:

_________/25

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total points earned _________/100

or: Teacher

Self

Peer

Assess Parent

Ideas/Content: Clear, accurate understanding/expression of subject. Organization: Logical sequence of information. Conventions: grammar, spelling, legibility and self-editing skills used. ( No excuses.) Presentation: Final product is reflective of best effort, including care, overall neatness, condition of product.

REFERENCES Chernobyl, The Event And The Aftermath, edited by Berkowitz, M.S.S.W., Norma, and Patrick, Ph.D., Michael, FOCCUS, 2001. Clifton, Kelly H., Biomedical Consequences of the Chernobyl Reactor Accident, Chernobyl, The Event And The Aftermath, FOCCUS, 2001.

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Chernobyl Lesson Plans: Grades 3-8 by Margit L. Gundlach Fall 2004 Insight, International Chornobyl Centre Magazine, Issue 13, 2004. Medvedev, Zhores A.; The Legacy of Chernobyl, W.W. Norton & Co., 1990. Moore, Colleen, Silent Scourge - Children, Pollution, and Why Scientists Disagree, Oxford Press, 2003. Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Waste, The Earth At Risk Environmental Video Series, Schlessinger Video Productions, 1993. Scarborough, Kate; Nuclear Waste, Bridgestone Books, 2002.

Websiteswww.bnfl.com British Nuclear Fuels, Information and games for children. www.ccp-intl.org/ Chernobyl Childrens Project International. www.enchangedlearning.com Maps, Graphic organizers. www.greenpeace.org Nuclear Issues.

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