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The Chernobyl Disaster orThe Chernobyl AccidentMade By:-
Dehil Buddhdev (Roll No. :- 27 ; Semester :- 1st ; Branch :- Textile Technology)Chintan Dhamelia (Roll No. :- 30 ; Semester :- 1st ; Branch :- Textile Technology)Chirag Bansal (Roll No. :- 31 ; Semester :- 1st ; Branch :- Textile Technology)
Sarvajanik College of Engineering and Technology
CONTENTS:INTRODUCTION TO CHERNOBYLWHAT IS NUCLEAR POWER?WHAT IS CHERNOBYL DISASTER?WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED?REASONS BEHIND ITCHERNOBYL NUCLEAR REACTOR BEFORE AND AFTER THE EXPLOSIONRADIATION LEVELSDEALING WITH THE CONSEQUENCEEFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT AROUND THE CHERNOBYL EXPLOSIONDIRECT CASUALITIES AND INDIRECT CASUALITIESBELARUS AFTER CHERNOBYLEFFECT ON ECONOMY AROUND CHERNOBYLCHERNOBYL TODAY
INTRODUCTION TO CHERNOBYL:
Chernobyl disaster, accident in 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union, the worst disaster in the history of nuclear power generation. The Chernobyl power station was situated at the settlement of Prypyat, 10 miles (16 km) northwest of the city of Chernobyl (Ukrainian: Chernobyl) and 65 miles (104 km) north of Kiev, Ukraine. The station consisted of four reactors, each capable of producing 1,000 megawatts of electric power; it had come online in 197783.
WHAT IS NUCLEAR POWER?
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
WHAT IS CHERNOBYL DISASTER?The Chernobyl disaster was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history in terms of cost and casualties. It is one of only two classified as a level 7 event (the maximum classification) on the International Nuclear Event Scale, the other being the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan in 2011.The struggle to safeguard against scenarios which were perceived as having the potential for greater catastrophe and the later decontamination efforts of the surroundings, ultimately involved over 500,000 workers and cost an estimated 18 billion rubles. During the accident 2 deaths occurred after the explosion and 29 firemen and employees died in the days-to-months afterward from acute radiation syndrome, with the potential for long-term cancers still being investigated.
WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED?During a hurried late night power-failure stress test, in which safety systems were deliberately turned off, a combination of inherent reactor design flaws, together with the reactor operators arranging the core in a manner contrary to the checklist for the stress test, eventually resulted in uncontrolled reaction conditions that flashed water into steam generating a destructive steam explosion and a subsequent open-air graphite "fire", that created updrafts for 9 days lofting plumes of radioactive isotopes into the atmosphere, which spread over much of the western USSR and Europe.
CAUSES BEHIND IT:Design errorsFaults of management and errors committed by the operating staff,Political PressureInexperienced staff in night shiftLack of right leader
CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR REACTOR BEFORE AND AFTER THE EXPLOSION:
RADIATION LEVELS:The radiation levels in the worst-hit areas of the reactor building have been estimated to be 5.6 roentgens per second (R/s), equivalent to more than 20,000 roentgens per hour. A lethal dose is around 500 roentgens (~5 Gy) over 5 hours, so in some areas, unprotected workers received fatal doses in less than a minute. However, a dosimeter capable of measuring up to 1000 R/s was buried in the rubble of a collapsed part of the building, and another one failed when turned on. All remaining dosimeters had limits of 0.001 R/s and therefore read "off scale". Thus, the reactor crew could ascertain only that the radiation levels were somewhere above 0.001 R/s (3.6 R/h), while the true levels were much higher in some areas.
DEALING WITH THE CONSEQUENCE:
Soviet scientists reported that the Chernobyl 4 reactor contained about 190 metric tons of uranium dioxide fuel and fission products. An estimated 13 percent to 30 percent of this escaped into the atmosphere. Contamination from the accident scattered irregularly, depending on weather conditions. Reports from Soviet and western scientists indicate that Belarus received about 60 percent of the contamination that fell on the former Soviet Union. A large area in the Russian Federation south of Bryansk also was contaminated, as were parts of northwestern Ukraine.
Soviet authorities started evacuating people from the area around Chernobyl within 36 hours of the accident. In 1986, 115,000 local people were evacuated. The government subsequently resettled another 220,000 people.
EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT AROUND THE CHERNOBYL EXPLOSION:Fallout levels were very high right around explosion and affected all wildlife.
Red Forest- was a forest right by the plant was named this because plants had a red hue after the explosion. These trees also died from the amount of radiation they received
DIRECT CASUALITIES:5.5 million people still live in contaminated areas.31 people died in 3 months of radiation poisoning.134 emergency workers suffered from acute radiation sickness.25,000 rescue workers died since then of diseases caused by radiation.Cancer afflicts many others.Increased birth defects, miscarriages, and stillbirths.
INDIRECT CASUALITIES:By the year 2000 there were 1800 case of thyroid cancer in children and adolescentHigh number of suicide and violent death among Firemen, policemen, and other recovery workers
BELARUS AFTER CHERNOBYL:
Many Cities were abandoned in Belarus due to Chernobyl Explosion Radiations.
EFFECT ON ECONOMY AROUND CHERNOBYL:Between 300,000 and 600,000 people were brought in to clean-up.Crops were destroyed, livestock was killed, everywhere there was radiation. Over 235 billion dollars has been spent to clean up the disaster.Belarus lost 1/5 of its farming lands(700 million dollars a year loss.)350 industries were lost due to the disaster.
The plant has been shut down by Ukraine (Dec. 2000) The cement sarcophagus is falling apart, due to the quick emergency construction of it. The UN estimates that up to 9 million people have been affected directly or indirectly by the fallout. The full consequences will not be seen for at least another 50 years.
een for at least another 50 years