chapter 16 - geography of north africa/middle east

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Physical Geography of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia

Physical Geography of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central AsiaChapter 16

If you rode in a car or a bus to school today, that vehicles fuel probably came from the region of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia. This region is the worlds leading producer of petroleum and natural gastwo of the main energy resources that power modern society.

How have natural resources made this region a key player in world affairs?Essential Question

This region includes a variety of landforms that affect how and where people live.Section 1: The Regions LandformsWhen you hear about floods, do you picture terrible damage and loss of life?

Multiple seas of aided trade for the region.Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, & Persian GulfSuez CanalSeas & Waterways

Atlas Mountains in MoroccoSahara Desert across rest of northern AfricaSouthwest Asia known for earthquakesCoastal plains support agricultureMountains, Plateaus, & Lowlands

Due to dry conditions, most people settle in river valleys.Nile, Tigris, & Euphrates RiversSilt: small particles of rich soilAlluvial Plain: area of fertile soil left by river floods.Rivers

What two bodies of water does the Suez Canal connect?Knowledge Check

The land in this region is rich in energy resources.Section 1: Natural ResourcesHave you ever depended on someone for something you really needed?

Largest reserves of oil & natural gas around Persian Gulf.Sedimentary Rock: created when layers of material are hardened by the intense weight of materials piled above.Countries in region very wealthy from oil.Has led to conflicts.Oil and Gas

Coal & iron can be found here.Phosphates: mineral salts used to make fertilizer.only Lebanon has a lumber industryFish an important resource for coastal areasOther Resources

Water is a scarce resourcePoaching: illegal fishing or huntingIrrigation has led to Aral Sea drying up.Environmental Concerns: The Seas

Irrigation water often evaporates; salt deposits then leave land unable to be farmedNile dams create electricity but blocks the flow needed silt.Farmers now use chemicals leading to runoff problems.Pollution from refineries: facilities that turn petroleum into gasoline & other products.Other Environmental Issues

What are some of the threats to the regions water supplies?Knowledge Check

Large areas of desert greatly affect life in the region.Section 2: A Dry RegionWhat would it be like to live through a long period without rain?

Worlds largest desertOnly 3 inches of rain a year.Wadis: dry riverbedsErgs: large areas of soft sandsOases: areas where the land is fertile as a result of water from spring or well.The Sahara

Arabian peninsula covered with desertSteppes border desert areas: dry, treeless, but grassy plains.Nomads: people that move across steppe areas to find food & water for their herds.Dry Farming: method in which land is left unplanted every few years so that it can store moisture.Desert & Steppe Areas

Coastal areas have Mediterranean climatesSupports agriculture and more peopleHighland climates in southwestern Asia support herd animals.Other Climate Areas

How do the regions desert and steppe areas differ?Knowledge Check

The lack of water is a growing problem in this region.Section 2: The Need for WaterHow much water do you use each day?

Rainfall is sparseMuch water used for irrigationAquifers: underground rock layers through which water flows.Need for Water

countries compete for scarce waterRationing: a resource is made available to people in only limited amounts.Desalinization: process that treats seawater to remove salts and minerals and make it drinkable.costly processpoor countries cant do itNeed for Water

Why is desalinization not an option for many countries in the region?Knowledge Check