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The Middle East and North Africa

Through the 5 themes of geography11) Location

Where is the Middle East?The Middle East is at the crossroads of three Continents:1. Asia2. Africa3. Europe

3What is the Middle East Region?Areas west of Afghanistan/Pakistan including IranCountries in Northern Africa along Mediterranean SeaTurkey

Why is Northern Africa included in the region?Islam and Arabs same religion, similar cultures

Major Physical FeaturesSahara Desert

Arabian Peninsula

Jordan River

Tigris River

Euphrates River

Nile River

Red Sea

Persian Gulf

Suez Canal

Straits of Hormuz

2) Human Environment Interaction

Physical Geography - Middle East: Climate Regions

What climate type dominates the region?

What climate type is found around water?Physical Geography - The Middle East: Natural Vegetation

What is the dominant vegetation zone in the region?

Why is there a different vegetation zone through central Egypt?Fresh WaterLimited supplies in most countriesDesalination plants remove salt from waterDams - hydroelectricityIrrigation - for farming

Petroleum/OilMost countries either have oil or make money from it (refining it or pipeline fees) of world supply of petroleum is in Middle East

How does this affect you?

What resources are in the Middle East?9Physical Geog - The Natural Resources of the Middle East

What is the dominant form of agriculture in the Middle East?

What mineral resource is most common in the Middle East?Where are there Fresh Groundwater Sources?

What is Oil? Why is it Important?Produced from microscopic marine plants and animals, squeezed underground for millions of years.

Oil is a finite resource NONRENEWABLEOnce it is used up, it is gone forever.Nobody is certain how much is left.

Oil is used for many things:Fuel, (gasoline, jet fuel, heating oil)All plastic is made from petroleumAsphalt used in road constructionSynthetic rubber in tiresFertilizer, pesticides, and herbicidesDetergents, many drugs, and paintsArtificial fibers used in clothing (Nylon, Polyester)

12Global Oil Production

OPECOPEC - Organization of the Petroleum Exporting CountriesControls the price, production and distribution of oil.66% of world reserves of oil, 40% of world oil production

14What are our alternative energy sources?SolarWindHydrogenNuclearVegetable oilGrain alcohol Gasohol/EthonalHydroelectricOcean CurrentsGeo-Thermal

3) MovementDemographics, Immigration, Trade Routes, and Choke Points

Demographics and ImmigrationIn general, MENA has fast growing, very young populations. 50% under the age of 35 in most places.

Despite this, many countries buck this trend, with rapidly decreasing fertility rates.

MENA is a primary source of immigrants to Europe and the West, mostly for economic reasons.

Some countries in the Persian Gulf, on the other hand, have large populations of immigrant workers from South and Southeast Asia for the same reasons.

Trade Routes and Choke PointsSuez CanalPrimary trade route connecting Europe and AsiaBuilt in Egypt by the French in the 1850s and 1860s.

Straits of HormuzThe Persian Gulf is a vital part of the world oil supply. It is in a very dangerous part of the world.It can easily be closed off by hostile countries.

4) Place

History of the Middle EastFertile Crescent of river valleys, was cradle of civilization, around 4000 BC.Nile RiverJordan RiverTigris RiverEuphrates River

Mesopotamia - Area of earliest towns, agriculture between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Empires - Many different empires ruled this region:AssyriansPersiansAlexander the GreatRomansCaliphate

Islam Dominated the region almost immediately after it appeared around 650AD, both religiously and politically.

Middle East: Population Density

Why is the population density so high in central Egypt?

What other areas are most populated in the region? Why?Cultures of the Middle EastMajority speak Arabic (also Turkish, Farsi, Hebrew)

Many different ethnic groups, such as Arabs, Persians, Turks, Kurds

90% follow Islam (Sunni and Shia)

22Many Ethnic Groups in the Middle East

Middle Eastern CountriesRelated history, similar issues and challengesReligious conflicts, social turmoilLimited natural resources (especially water) Arid climate hot and dry (136* in the shade in Libya!)All countries border the ocean (except Afghanistan)

24Islam and the Middle East

What three major religions began in Middle East?Judaism, Christianity, Islam

Called Religions of the Book, or Abrahamic Religions, all related traditions.

Major events of Old Testament, New Testament, and Quran all happened in Middle East and North Africa.

Islam is now the dominant religion of the region, and has been since around 700AD.

What is Islam?Primary religion of the modern Middle East, about 1.5 billion followers.

Main idea: There is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is his Prophet. Who MuhammadWhen circa 610ADWhere Arabian PeninsulaHoly Books Quran (main text) and the Hadith (commentaries)

Major Concepts of IslamIslam means submission to the will of God.

Quran (book) is considered the literal word of Allah, given to Mohammed by the Archangel Gabriel.

Sharia is Islamic law, covering nearly all aspects of life. Used by many Islamic countries as basis for their own legal codes.

Mosques are where Muslims gather to worship.

Five Pillars of Islam are the things one must do to be a practicing Muslim.

Jihad is struggle, whether internally for self-control or externally for holy war.

Five Pillars of Islam: Statement of Faith

Prayer five times daily

Fasting during holiday of Ramadan

Alms to the poor

Visit holy city of Mecca at least once.

I declare that there is no deity except Allah.I declare that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.Kaaba in Mecca, site of pilgrimage.

Why are women covered up?Islam encourages modest dress. Different cultures interpret this differently, and require different things from women. Some women see it as subjugation, some see it as proper.Not all countries follow the same customs, nor do all women in a country follow the same customs. Some places it is a choice, others it is the law. In a few places, it is enforced with violence against women. Head covering is called Hijab. Only the eyes exposed is called Nijab. Head to toe is called Burka.

Difference between Sunni vs. Shia?Two major sects of Islam. In modern times, Islam is split about 85% Sunni, 15% Shia.

Differences started long ago, due to a dispute about who would lead the Muslim world (Umma) after Muhammad died.

Over time, the groups developed different beliefs and practices. It is a little like the differences between Catholics and Protestants.

Many modern conflicts in the Middle East have these differences at their root. This is called sectarian violence.

5 ) RegionIssues, Crisis, and ConflictsThere is a lot of stuff covered in this presentation, so strap in.

CONFLICT: Israel and the Arab World

Creation of IsraelZionism- Political movement for a Jewish homeland. Jews to return to Promised Land. Organized by Theodore Herzl in 1897.

Israel is the only country in the region not dominated by Islam Why? Jews faced persecution and genocide throughout their history. Worldwide sympathy for Jews after WW2. Jews slowly moved to Palestine in 1890s 1930s. Conflict with local Arabs over land, water, business.

How was Israel created?United Nations settled on Palestine for a Jewish HomelandWhy Palestine?Ancient kingdom of Israel, Promised LandNot very crowded in the 1940sControlled by Britain, which was willing to give it to Jews

1948 UN Resolution 181 divided Palestine into 3 sections:Israel for JewsPalestine for ArabsJerusalem run by UN for all groups

Immediately triggered the 1948 war, first of many Arab-Israeli wars.

Arab-Israeli WarsIsrael believes it has a right to exist. Arabs feel that Israel was forced upon them by the West. Both sides became part of the Cold War, aggravating the issue. Arabs and Israelis fought several large wars and many small ones. The two most important ones are:

1948 War of Independence/Nakba: Arab armies invaded, Arab refugees fled, hoping to return after war. Israel won. These refugees became todays Palestinians.

1967 Six Day War: Egypt, Syria prepped for war, but Israel hit first. Total win for Israel, Occupied lots of territory, including West Bank, Gaza, and Golan Heights, and captured Jerusalem.

Major wars ended after Camp David Agreements (1977-1978), peace between Egypt and Israel. Other Arab countries still hostile, but no wars since.

JerusalemJerusalem is a holy city for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. It has been fought over for thousands of years.

In the 1967 Six Day War, Israel captured the entire city, and made it the capital of Israel. Part had previously been controlled by Jordan. The Palestinians see it as part of the West Bank, and thus belonging to them.

The Western Wall, part of the ruins of the main temple of Judaism, is considered the holiest site by Jews. The Dome of the Rock is a mosque where Muslims believe Muhammad ascended into heaven. Both sites are on the same hill, with constant tensions between Jews and Muslims.

Israel vs. PalestineIn the 1948 war, many Arabs left their homes, living in refugee camps in the West Bank and Gaza. After 1967 War, Israel expanded into this captured land, and