anatomi fisiologi sistem limfatik& imun 2

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  • ANATOMI FISIOLOGI SISTEM LIMFATIK & IMUNOlehMAYUSEF SUKMANAANATOMI FISIOLOGI SISTEM LIMPATIK & IMUN

  • PENGERTIANImmunityThe ability of the body to fight infection and/or foreign invaders by producing antibodies or killing infected cells.

    Immune SystemSemua mekanisme yang digunakan badan untuk mempertahankan keutuhan tubuh, sebagai perlindungan terhadap bahaya yang dapat ditimbulkan berbagai bahan dalam lingkungan hidup

    Sistem limpatik- Sistem yg berperanan dalam menjaga kekebalan tubuh.

  • Foreign InvadersCalled PathogensViruses, bacteria or other living thing that causes disease/immune response.

    AntigensToxins that pathogens produce that cause harm to an organism.

  • Pathogens Bacteria

  • ORGAN/JARINGAN/KELENJAR PD SISTEM IMUN

  • ORGAN/JARINGAN/KELENJAR PD SISTEM IMUNAdenoid dan Tonsil Terletak di pintu masuk ke tekak berfungsi menghalangi bakteri dan kuman masuk melalui mulut.

  • Kelenjar Liur Terletak dalam pipi dan di bawah lidah. Air liur mengeluarkan bahan yang melawan penyakit.

    Kelenjar Air Mata (Lakrima) Terletak di atas sudut luar mata yang mengeluarkan air mata yang berfungsi untuk mencuci debu dan kotoran di mata. Air mata juga mengandung lysozyme bahan yang melawan bakteri.

    Membran Mukus Lapisan lembab yang melapisi beberapa organ seperti hidung dan tekak, mengeluarkan mukus, cairan yang melindungi kita dari bakteri dan menangkap kuman serta debu.

  • Timus Timus sangat penting keberadaannya bagi bayi yang baru lahir, tanpa timus sistem imun bayi akan mati. Timus menghasilkan timosin yaitu hormon yang menguatkan reaksi sistem imun Timus sbg tempat pematangan Limposit- T.

  • ORGAN/JARINGAN/KELENJAR PD SISTEM IMUNLimpa;Terletak disebelah kiri abdomen di daerah hipogastrium kiri bawah iga ke-9, 10 dan 11.Fungsi : memproduksi limposit, penghancuran eritrosit, menghasilkan antibodi.

  • SISTEM LIMPATIK

    Meliputi :Nodus limpatikus Organ/jar. limpatikPembuluh limfe

  • NODUS LIMPATIKUS; - Terletak di hampir sel. Bag. Tubuh- Menghasilkan limfosit.- Melakukan fagosit bacteri/kuman yg masuk.

  • Pembuluh Limfe & Cairan LimfeSpt vena kecil tp byk katub.Komposisi cairan limfe mirip plasma darah mengandung sejml limposit. Tdk ada CO2 & sedikit O2.Cairan limfe bergerak karena adanya inspirasi/ekspirasi, kontraksi otot, grk tubuh, pulsasi arteri, penekanan jar. Luar tubuh & kontraksi instrinsik pembuluh limfe

  • Pembuluh Limfe mempunyai 2 saluran :Duktus Toraksikus/Duktus Limpatikus Sinistra; tdp di depan vertebra lubalis menuju ke bag. atas-vena brakiosefalika-vena kava superior. Mrp kumpulan dr pembuluh limfe yg berasal dari kepala kiri, leher kiri, dada sebelah kiri bg abdomen, ekst bwh & alat rongga perut.

  • Duktus Limpatikus Dekstra;menerima cairan limfe dr pemblh limfe yg berasal dr kepala kanan, leher kanan, dada kanan, & lengan kanan yg bermuara pd vena subklavia dekstra.

  • Innate (nonspecific) immunity First line: External defensesExternal defenses

  • Two major types of defenses

  • Innate immunity Second line: Internal defensesPhagocytes Attach to and ingest invading microorganismsInitiates the inflammatory responseMacrophages migrants or in lymph organsAntimicrobial proteinsComplement system lysis of invading cells, triggers inflammationInterferons activate macrophages, prevent cell-to-cell spread

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  • Inflammatory responseInnate immunity Second line: Internal defenses (cont.)http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/dynamicillustrations/inflammatory.htmlChemicals involved Histamines Prostaglandins Chemokines Pyrogens

  • Innate immunity Second line: Internal defenses (cont.)Natural killer (NK) cellsAttack virus-infected body cells and cancer cellsApoptosis (cell death) in cells attacked

  • Specific (acquired) immunityThird line of defenseLymphocytesFound in blood and lymphTypesB cells mature in marrowT cells mature in thymusHelperCytotoxicDisplay specificity to antigens (antibody generator)Have membrane-bound antigen-receptors

  • The Pathway of Specific Immune Response

  • Immune Response ExplainedAntigen infects cells.Macrophage ingests antigen and displays portion on its surface.Helper T- Cell recognizes antigen on the surface of the macrophage and becomes active.Active Helper T-Cell activates Cytotoxic T-Cells and B-Cells.Cytotoxic T-Cells divide into Active Cytotoxic T-cells and Memory T Cells.Active Cytotoxic T-Cells kill infected cells.At the same time, B-Cells divide into Plasma Cells and Memory B- Cells.Plasma cells produce antibodies that deactivate pathogen.Memory T and Memory B cells remain in the body to speed up the response if the same antigen reappears.Supressor T-Cells stop the immune response when all antigens have been destroyed.

  • Immune Response SummaryDisplays copy of antigen on surface of cellCellular ImmunityAntibody Immunity

  • Passive .vs. Active ImmunityActive ImmunityThis is immunity where the body is actively producing antibodies to fight infection.Ex: You have a throat infection and you are actively creating antibodies to fight it.

    Vaccination:An injection of a weakened strain of an infectious microbe (pathogen) that causes the body to undergo active immunity (produce antibodies).Passive ImmunityThis is immunity where antibodies are given to a person from the blood of another person or animal.This immunity only lasts for a short period of time.ex: Breastfeeding mothers pass antibodies to their children through the milk.

  • Active immunityOwn system develops antibodiesDevelops naturally in response to infectionDevelops following immunizationLong-lasting protection but may take a long time

    Passive immunityAntibodies are passed from mother to fetus via the placentaAntibodies are passed from mother to infant via breast milk (colostrum)Antibodies may be injected into a nonimmune personImmediate, short-term protection