sistem limfatik farmasi

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  • 1. Lymphatic/ImmuneSystem

2. Lymphatic/Immune System:Major Role:The main role of the immunesystem is to destroy and removeinvading microbes and virusesfrom the body. The lymphaticsystem also removes fat andexcess fluids from the blood. Major Organs:Lymph, lymph nodes and vessels,white blood cells, T- and B- cells. 3. SIRKULASI LIMFATIK cairan & protein yg berlebihan yg disaringmelalui kapiler sistemikyang berada diruang interstitial akan di angkut olehpembuluh limfe dalam bentuk cairanlimfe(cairan limfe) Untuk kemudian dikembalikan ke sirkulasisistemik melalui pembuluh2 pengumpul ygletaknya dekat dengan vena ygbersangkutan 4. Pembuluh limfe Membawa cairan limfe melalui ductusthoracicus dan ductus lymphaticus dexterke dalam sistem vena subclavia (sirkulasilimfe) Limfe : cairan jaringan yang mengandungfaktor pembekuan darah, protein, lemakdan limfosit. 5. SISTEM LIMFOIDLimfosit terdapat di seluruh tubuh, dancenderung terpusat dalam jaringan limfoidYang termasuk Jaringan limfoid : kelenjarlimfe, limpa, timus, jaringan limfoid ygberhubungan dengan permukaan mukosa,& sumsum tulang 6. Kelenjar limfePaling banyakMerupakan nodul nodul jaringan limfoid ygdiselubungi kapsul dan terdapat pada tiapbagian tubuh 7. LimpaMassa besar yg tdd limfosit & makrofag ygdirangkai dalam aliran darahSinusoidnya dipenuhi oleh darah dandiantaranya terdapat nodulus jaringanlimfoid 8. Timus Jaringan limfoid ygterletak dalamrongga dadaanterior & bagianatas jantung danpembuluh2 darahbesar 9. Edema Akumulasi cairan di bagian interstisial,yang menyebabkan pembengkakanjaringan Penyebabnya adalah: hal hal yang menyebabkan keluarnyacairan dari pembuluh darah:1. Peningkatan tekanan darah, permeabilitaskapiler2. Katup vena yang inkompeten, penyumbatanpembuluh darah3. hypoproteinemia, protein plasma berkurang shg 10. Edema Kegagalan cairaninterstitital diangkutoleh pembuluh limfe,akibat Penyumbatan(pengangkatan)pembuluh limfe e.gelephantiasis, postmastektomi ec Camammae 11. Defence Mechanisms non-specific ; inflamasi specific 12. InflammationThe bodys response toinjury 13. Inflammation Signs and SymptomsAnatomical: Redness, swelling, heat, pain, poor function.Histological: Leukocytes accumulate in inflamed tissues. 14. Inflammation Degrees of severityAcute: Short duration (hours, days) Possible neutrophil influxChronic: Long duration (weeks, months) Immune system recruited (lymphocytes) 15. InflammationUnderlying MechanismsBlood vessels:changes in diameterand permeability.Leukocytes: chemotactic emigration.Both regulated by the production andrelease of inflammatory mediators. 16. Inflammation Inflammatory Mediators Derived from plasma proteins: e.g. products released duringclotting. Derived from cells: e.g. histamine, cytokines.Only released/act locally. (hormonal-like specificity) 17. InflammatoryResponse Tissue Pathogen damageChemicalmediators Increased released ChemotaxisvascularpermeabilityIncreased numbers ofFibrin mesh white blood cells isolates injury siteat injury sitePathogens contained& destroyed 18. Chemical defences1. Complement group of about 20 serum proteins when combined with foreign substances acomplement cascade is activated complement proteins rupture bacterial membranes2. Interferon stimulate body cells to resist viral infection inhibits viral replication 19. The Immune SystemSpecific: via receptor ligand interactions Acquired: via education oflymphocytes Memory: via survival oflymphocytesSystemic: via emigration oflymphocytes. 20. The Immune SystemSpecificity is driven by receptor-ligand typeinteractions.Two main pathways:1. Humoral pathway (involves B lymphocytes).2. Cell mediated pathway (uses T lymphocytes) 21. Humoral PathwayANTIBODIES: proteins secretedby activated B lymphocytes, thatbind to antigens(immunoglobulins).ANTIGENS: any chemical whichelicits an immune response(usually foreign). 22. B-lymphocytesProduce antibodies against foreign proteins5 main classes1. IgG - most abundant2. IgM - first circulating Ig released3. IgE - involved in inflammatory responses4. IgA - body secretions5. IgD - surface receptor 23. Antigenic DeterminantsDifferentantigenicdeterminantsAntigen 24. Humoral Response 25. Humoral ResponseConsequences of immune complexformation.1. Neutralisation of toxic antigens.2. Activation of leukocytes.3. Formation of inflammatory mediators.4. Destruction of bacteria. 26. Cell Mediated ResponseAntigen-receptor interactions occur on thecell surface.Two types of interaction: Antigen presenting cells (APC) and Helper Tcells. Cytotoxic T cells and abnormal cells. 27. Cell Mediated Response APCAntigenHelper T cell MHCII MHCII-antigenT-cell complexreceptor Cytokines Released MHC = Major-Histocompatibility-Complex molecule. 28. Cell Mediated ResponseInfected CellCytotoxicVirusT cell MHCIMHCI-antigen T-cellcomplexreceptorInfected cellKilled 29. Cytotoxic T-cell Response Cell lysis initiatedVirus infected cellTimeKiller T cell 30. Education by Clonal SelectionATTACK Memory cells 31. Reaksi Alergi= Hipersensitivitas merupakankeadaan cedera tubuh akibatinteraksi antara antigen dan antibodiReaksi Alergi ada 4 tipe yaitu :1. Reaksi tipe I (anafilaktik),diperantarai oleh antibodi IgE yangterikat pada permukaan sel mast. 32. 2. Reaksi tipe II (Sitotoksik),diperantarai oleh antibodi IgG atauIgM yg bereaksi dengan antigenpada permukaan sel target ADCC (antibody dependent, cell- mediated cytotoxic) 33. 3. Reaksi tipe III (Kompleks imun),diperantarai melalui pembentukankompleks-kompleks antigen antibodi,sebagian besar dengan antibodi Ig GReaksi tipe IV (diperantarai sel),diperantarai oleh limfosit T ygmengalami sensitisasi dematitis kontak alergi 34. SINDROM IMUNODEFISIENSIKeadaan dimana jaringan limfoidtidak dapat bereaksi secara normalthd berbagai antigenPrimer (genetik), cth:agammaglobulinemia terkait-X(defisiensi sel B),Sekunder, cth: keganasan, AIDS 35. AIDSBentuk spektrum imunologis & klinis ygpaling ekstrim dari infeksi HIVHIV ditransmisikan melalui kontakseksual, darah atau produk darah ygterinfeksi, & cairan tubuh tertentu, sertamelalui perinatalHIV menginfeksi sel molekul CD4 (limfositT4), monosit, makrofag, dendrit,Langerhans dan mikroglia 36. Setelah virus memasuki sel RNA nyaditranskripsi menjadi DNA. DNA yg barusaling bergabung masuk sel target danmembtk provirus. Provirus inimenghasilkan protein virus baru ygmerupakan pabrik bagi virus yg baru.Sel target normal akan membelah danmemperbanyak diri, pd keadaan iniprovirus menyebarkan anak-anaknya 37. TERIMA KASIH