1 iki10230 pengantar organisasi komputer kuliah no. 4: cisc vs. risc instruction sets 12 maret 2003...

of 41 /41
1 IKI10230 Pengantar Organisasi Komputer Kuliah no. 4: CISC vs. RISC Instruction Sets 12 Maret 2003 Bobby Nazief ([email protected]) Qonita Shahab ([email protected]) bahan kuliah: http://www.cs.ui.ac.id/kuliah/iki10230/ Sumber : 1. Hamacher. Computer Organization, ed-5. 2. Materi kuliah CS61C/2000 & CS152/1997, UCB.

Author: hugh-cashmore

Post on 31-Mar-2015




2 download

Embed Size (px)


  • Slide 1

1 IKI10230 Pengantar Organisasi Komputer Kuliah no. 4: CISC vs. RISC Instruction Sets 12 Maret 2003 Bobby Nazief ([email protected]) Qonita Shahab ([email protected]) bahan kuliah: http://www.cs.ui.ac.id/kuliah/iki10230/ Sumber: 1. Hamacher. Computer Organization, ed-5. 2. Materi kuliah CS61C/2000 & CS152/1997, UCB. Slide 2 2 Review: Jenis-jenis Operasi Data Transfersmemory-to-memory move register-to-register move memory-to-register move Arithmetic & Logicinteger (binary + decimal) or FP Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide not, and, or, set, clear shift left/right, rotate left/right Program Sequencing & Control unconditional, conditional Branch call, return trap, return Synchronizationtest & set (atomic r-m-w) Stringsearch, translate Graphics (MMX)parallel subword ops (4 16bit add) Input/Output Transfersregister-to-i/o device move Slide 3 3 Review: Modus Pengalamatan (1/2) JenisSyntaxEffective Address 1.Immediate:#Value; Operand = Value Add #10,R1; R1 [R1] + 10 2.Register:Ri; EA = Ri Add R2,R1; R1 [R1] + [R2] 3.Absolute (Direct):LOC; EA = LOC Add 100,R1; R1 [R1] + [100] 4.Indirect-Register:(Ri); EA = [Ri] Add (R2),R1; R1 [R1] + [[R2]] Indirect-Memory:(LOC); EA = [LOC] Add (100),R1; R1 [R1] + [[100]] Slide 4 4 Review: Modus Pengalamatan (2/2) 5.Index:X(R2); EA = [R2] + X Add 10(R2),R1; R1 [R1] + [[R2]+10] Base+Index:(R1,R2); EA = [R1] + [R2] Add (R1,R2),R3; R3 [R3] + [[R1]+[R2]] Base+Index+Offset:X(R1,R2); EA = [R1] + [R2] + X Add 10(R1,R2),R3 ; R3 [R3] + [[R1]+[R2]+10] 6.Relative:X(PC); EA = [PC] + X Beq 10 ; if (Z==1) then PC [PC]+10 7.Autoincrement:(Ri)+; EA = [Ri], Increment Ri Add (R2)+,R1; R1 [R1] + [[R2]], ; R2 [R2] + d 8.Autodecrement:-(Ri); Decrement Ri, EA = [Ri] Add -(R2),R1; R2 [R2] d, ; R1 [R1] + [[R2]] Slide 5 5 Solusi PR #1 2.8 A x X + C x D pada single-accumulator processor LoadA MultiplyB; Accumulator = A x B StoreX; X can be A, B, or others except C or D LoadC MultiplyD; Accumulator = C x D AddX; Accumulator = A x B + C x D Slide 6 6 Solusi PR #1 2.9 Jumlah nilai dari N siswa, J tes; J >> jumlah register Move#SUM,R0; R0 points to SUM MoveJ,R1; R1 = j MoveR1,R2 Add#1,R2 Multiply#4,R2; R2 = (j + 1)*4 Lj: Move#LIST,R3; R3 points to first student MoveJ,R4 SubR1,R4; R4: index to particular test of first student Multiply#4,R4 AddR4,R3; R3 points to particular test of first student MoveN,R4; R4 = n ClearR5; Reset the accumulator Ln: Add(R3),R5; Accumulate the sum particular test AddR2,R3; R3 points to particular test of next student DecrementR4 Branch>0Ln; Iterate for all students MoveR5,(R0); Store the sum of particular test Add#4,R0; R0 point to sum of the next test DecrementR1 Branch>0Lj; Iterate for all tests Slide 7 7 Solusi PR #1 2.10 (a) Dot product pada arsitektur Load/Store Move#AVEC,R1; R1 points to vector A. Move#BVEC,R2; R2 points to vector B. LoadN,R3; R3 serves as a counter. ClearR0; R0 accumulates the product. LOOP: Load(R1)+,R4 Load(R2)+,R5 MultiplyR5,R4; Compute the product of next ; components. AddR4,R0; Add to previous sum. DecrementR3; Decrement the counter. Branch>0LOOP; Loop again if not done. StoreR0,DOTPROD; Store the product in memory. Slide 8 8 Solusi PR #1 2.13 Effective Address R1 = 1200, R2 = 4600 Load20(R1),R5; EA = [R1] + 20 = 1200 + 20 = 1220 Move#3000,R5; EA = tidak ada (#3000: immd. value) StoreR5,30(R1,R2); EA = [R1] + [R2] + 30 = 5830 Add-(R2),R5; EA = [R2] 1 = 4600 1 = 4599 Subtract(R1)+,R5; EA = [R1] = 1200 Slide 9 9 Solusi PR #1 2.14 Linked list Move#1000,R0 ClearR1 ClearR2 ClearR3 LOOP: Add8(R0),R1 Add12(R0),R2 Add16(R0),R3 Move4(R0),R0 Compare#0,R0 BNELOOP MoveR1,SUM1 MoveR2,SUM2 MoveR3,Sum3 Slide 10 10 RISC vs. CISC Slide 11 11 RISC vs. CISC RISC = Reduced Instruction Set Computer Term coined at Berkeley, ideas pioneered by IBM, Berkeley, Stanford RISC characteristics: Load-store architecture Fixed-length instructions (typically 32 bits) Three-address architecture Simple operations RISC examples: MIPS, SPARC, IBM/Motorola PowerPC, Compaq Alpha, ARM, SH4, HP-PA,... CISC = Complex Instruction Set Computer Term referred to non-RISC architectures CISC characteristics: Register-memory architecture Variable-length instructions Complex operations CISC examples: Intel 80x86, VAX, IBM 360, Slide 12 12 MIPS Slide 13 13 MIPS I Registers Programmable storage 2^32 x bytes of memory 31 x 32-bit GPRs (R0 = 0) 32 x 32-bit FP regs (paired DP) HI, LO, PC Slide 14 14 MIPS Addressing Modes/Instruction Formats oprsrtrd immed register Register (direct) oprsrt register Base+index + Memory immedoprsrt Immediate immedoprsrt PC PC-relative + Memory All instructions 32 bits wide Destination first:OPcodeR dest,R src1,R src2 Slide 15 15 MIPS Data Transfer Instructions InstructionComment SW500(R4), R3Store word SH502(R2), R3Store half SB41(R3), R2Store byte LWR1, 30(R2)Load word LHR1, 40(R3)Load halfword LHUR1, 40(R3)Load halfword unsigned LBR1, 40(R3)Load byte LBUR1, 40(R3)Load byte unsigned LUIR1, 40Load Upper Immediate (16 bits shifted left by 16) 0000 0000 LUI R5 R5 Slide 16 16 MIPS Arithmetic Instructions InstructionExampleMeaningComments add add $1,$2,$3$1 = $2 + $33 operands subtractsub $1,$2,$3$1 = $2 $33 operands add immediateaddi $1,$2,100$1 = $2 + 100+ constant add unsignedaddu $1,$2,$3$1 = $2 + $33 operands subtract unsignedsubu $1,$2,$3$1 = $2 $33 operands add imm. unsign.addiu $1,$2,100$1 = $2 + 100+ constant multiply mult $2,$3Hi, Lo = $2 x $364-bit signed product multiply unsignedmultu$2,$3Hi, Lo = $2 x $364-bit unsigned product divide div $2,$3Lo = $2 $3, Hi = $2 mod $3 divide unsigned divu $2,$3Lo = $2 $3, Hi = $2 mod $3 Move from Himfhi $1$1 = HiUsed to get copy of Hi Move from Lomflo $1$1 = LoUsed to get copy of Lo Slide 17 17 MIPS Logical Instructions InstructionExampleMeaningComment and and $1,$2,$3$1 = $2 & $33 reg. operands oror $1,$2,$3$1 = $2 | $33 reg. operands xorxor $1,$2,$3$1 = $2 $33 reg. operands nornor $1,$2,$3$1 = ~($2 |$3)3 reg. operands and immediateandi $1,$2,10$1 = $2 & 10Logical AND reg, constant shift left logicalsll $1,$2,10$1 = $2 > 10Shift right by constant shift right arithm.sra $1,$2,10$1 = $2 >> 10Shift right (sign extend) shift left logicalsllv $1,$2,$3$1 = $2 > $3 Shift right by variable shift right arithm.srav $1,$2, $3 $1 = $2 >> $3 Shift right arith. by variable Slide 18 18 MIPS Compare and Branch Instructions Compare and Branch BEQ rs, rt, offset if R[rs] == R[rt] then PC-relative branch BNE rs, rt, offsetCompare to zero and Branch BLEZ rs, offset if R[rs]BLT < BGEZ >= BLTZAL rs, offset if R[rs] < 0 then branch and link (into R 31) BGEZAL >= Slide 19 19 MIPS Compare and Set, Jump instructions InstructionExampleMeaning set on less thanslt $1,$2,$3if ($2 < $3) $1=1; else $1=0 Compare less than; 2s comp. set less than immslti $1,$2,100if ($2 < 100) $1=1; else $1=0 Compare < constant; 2s comp. set less than uns.sltu $1,$2,$3if ($2 < $3) $1=1; else $1=0 Compare less than; natural numbers set l. t. imm. uns.sltiu $1,$2,100if ($2 < 100) $1=1; else $1=0 Compare < constant; natural numbers jumpj 10000go to 10000 Jump to target address jump registerjr $31go to $31 For switch, procedure return jump and linkjal 10000$31 = PC + 4; go to 10000 For procedure call Slide 20 20 MIPS I/O Instructions MIPS tidak memiliki instruksi khusus untuk I/O I/O diperlakukan sebagai memori Status Register & Data Register dianggap sebagai memori Slide 21 21 Contoh Program: Vector Dot Product LUIR1,high(AVEC); R1 points to vector A. ORIR1,R1,low(AVEC) LUIR2,high(BVEC) ; R2 points to vector B. ORIR2,R2,low(BVEC) LUIR6,high(N) LWR3,low(N)(R6); R3 serves as a counter. ANDR4,R4,R0; R4 accumulates the product. LOOP:LWR5,0(R1); Compute the product of LWR6,0(R2); next components. MULTR5,R5,R6 ADDR4,R4,R5; Add to previous sum. ADDIR3,R3,-1; Decrement the counter. BNER3,R0,LOOP; Loop again if not done. LUIR6,high(DOTPROD); Store the product in memory. SWlow(DOTPROD)(R6),R4 Slide 22 22 x86 Slide 23 23 Intel History: ISA evolved since 1978 8086: 16-bit, all internal registers 16 bits wide; no general purpose registers; 78 8087: + 60 Fl. Pt. instructions, (Prof. Kahan) adds 80-bit-wide stack, but no registers; 80 80286: adds elaborate protection model; 82 80386: 32-bit; converts 8 16-bit registers into 8 32-bit general purpose registers; new addressing modes; adds paging; 85 80486, Pentium, Pentium II: + 4 instructions MMX: + 57 instructions for multimedia; 97 Pentium III: +70 instructions for multimedia; 99 Pentium 4: +144 instructions for multimedia; '00 Slide 24 24 x86 Registers Program Counter (PC) Slide 25 25 Organization of Segment Registers Slide 26 26 Instruction Format Ukuran instruksi [n] bervariasi: 1 n 16 byte 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 1, 2 0,1 0,1 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Prefix: (Lock, Repeat), Overrides: Segment, Operand Size, Address Size ModR/M: Addressing Mode SIB: Scale, Index, Base Displacement: Displacements Value Immediate: Immediates Value Konvensi:OPcode dst,src; dst dst OP src MOV AL,BL; byte (8 bit) MOV AX,BX; word (16 bit) MOV EAX,EBX; double-word (32 bit) PrefixDisplacementImmediate SIB Opcode Mod R/M Slide 27 27 Addressing Modes Immediate Register Direct (Absolute) Indirect (Register) Index: Slide 28 28 Addressing Modes: Contoh Immediate: MOVEAX,25; EAX 25 MOVEAX,NUM; NUM: konstanta Register: MOVEAX,EBX; EAX [EBX] Direct (Absolute): MOVEAX,LOC; EAX [LOC] ; LOC: label alamat MOVEAX,[LOC] ; EAX [LOC] Register Indirect: MOVEBX,OFFSET LOC; EBX #LOC MOVEAX,[EBX]; EAX [[EBX]] Index: Base+disp.:MOVEAX,[EBP+10]; EAX [EBP+10] Index+disp.:MOVEAX,[ESI*4+10]; EAX [ESI*4+10] Base+Index:MOVEAX,[EBP+ESI*4]; EAX [EBP+ESI*4] Base+Index+disp.:MOVEAX,[EBP+ESI*4+10] ; EAX [EBP+ESI*4+10] Slide 29 29 Data Transfer Instructions MOV Move PUSH Push onto stack PUSHA/PUSHAD Push GP registers onto stack XCHG Exchange CWD/CDQConvert word to doubleword/Convert doubleword to quadword XLATTable lookup translation CMOVEConditional move if equal CMOVNEConditional move if not equal CMPXCHG Compare and exchange Slide 30 30 Arithmetic Instructions Binary Arithmetic: ADD, ADC, SUB, SBB IMUL, MUL, IDIV, DIV INC, DEC, NEG, CMP Decimal Arithmetic: DAA Decimal adjust after addition DAS Decimal adjust after subtraction AAA ASCII adjust after addition AAS ASCII adjust after subtraction Slide 31 31 Logical Instructions ANDAnd OROr XORExclusive or NOTNot SAR/LShift arithmetic right/left SHR/LShift logical right/left SHRDShift right double SHLDShift left double ROR/LRotate right/left RCR/LRotate through carry right/left Slide 32 32 Branch Instructions JMP Jump JE/JZ Jump if equal/Jump if zero JNE/JNZ Jump if not equal/Jump if not zero JC Jump if carry JNC Jump if not carry JCXZ/JECXZ Jump register CX zero/Jump register ECX zero LOOP Loop with ECX counter INT Software interrupt IRET Return from interrupt Slide 33 33 I/O Instructions INRead from a port OUTWrite to a port Slide 34 34 String MOVS/MOVSB Move string/Move byte string MOVS/MOVSW Move string/Move word string MOVS/MOVSD Move string/Move doubleword string INS/INSB Input string from port/Input byte string from port OUTS/OUTSB Output string to port/Output byte string to port CMPS/CMPSB Compare string/Compare byte string SCAS/SCASB Scan string/Scan byte string REP Repeat while ECX not zero REPE/REPZ Repeat while equal/Repeat while zero REPNE/REPNZ Repeat while not equal/Repeat while not zero Slide 35 35 HLL Support & Extended Instruction Sets HLL Support: BOUND Detect value out of range ENTER High-level procedure entry; creates a stack frame LEAVE High-level procedure exit; reverses the action of previous ENTER Extended: MMX Instructions -Operate on Packed (64 bits) Data simultaneously use 8 MMX Register Set Floating-point Instructions System Instruction Streaming SIMD Extensions -Operate on Packed (128 bits) Floating-point Data simultenously uses 8 XMMX Register Set Slide 36 36 Contoh Program: Vector Dot Product LEAEBP,AVEC; EBP points to vector A. LEAEBX,BVEC ; EBX points to vector B. MOVECX,N; ECX serves as a counter. MOVEAX,0; EAX accumulates the product. MOVEDI,0; EDI is an index register. LOOPSTART:MOVEDX,[EBP+EDI*4] ; Compute the product of IMULEDX,[EBX+EDI*4] ; next components. INCEDI; Increment index. ADDEAX,EDX; Add to previous sum. LOOPLOOPSTART; Loop again if not done. MOVDOTPROD,EAX ; Store the product in memory. Slide 37 37 MIPS (RISC) vs. Intel 80x86 (CISC) Slide 38 38 MIPS vs. Intel 80x86 MIPS: Three-address architecture Arithmetic-logic specify all 3 operands add $s0,$s1,$s2 # s0=s1+s2 Benefit: fewer instructions performance x86: Two-address architecture Only 2 operands, so the destination is also one of the sources add $s1,$s0 # s0=s0+s1 Often true in C statements: c += b; Benefit: smaller instructions smaller code Slide 39 39 MIPS vs. Intel 80x86 MIPS: load-store architecture Only Load/Store access memory; rest operations register-register; e.g., lw $t0, 12($gp) add $s0,$s0,$t0 # s0=s0+Mem[12+gp] Benefit: simpler hardware easier to pipeline, higher performance x86: register-memory architecture All operations can have an operand in memory; other operand is a register; e.g., add 12(%gp),%s0 # s0=s0+Mem[12+gp] Benefit: fewer instructions smaller code Slide 40 40 MIPS vs. Intel 80x86 MIPS: fixed-length instructions All instructions same size, e.g., 4 bytes simple hardware performance branches can be multiples of 4 bytes x86: variable-length instructions Instructions are multiple of bytes: 1 to 16; small code size (30% smaller?) More Recent Performance Benefit: better instruction cache hit rates Instructions can include 8- or 32-bit immediates Slide 41 41 MIPS vs. x86: Code Length LUIR1,high(AVEC) ORIR1,R1,low(AVEC) LUIR2,high(BVEC) ORIR2,R2,low(BVEC) LUIR6,high(N) LWR3,low(N)(R6) ANDR4,R4,R0 LOOP:LWR5,0(R1) LWR6,0(R2) MULTR5,R5,R6 ADDR4,R4,R5 ADDIR3,R3,-1 BNER3,R0,LOOP LUIR6,high(DOTPROD) SWlow(DOTPROD)(R6),R4 LEAEBP,AVEC LEAEBX,BVEC MOVECX,N MOVEAX,0 MOVEDI,0 LOOPSTART:MOVEDX,[EBP+EDI*4] IMULEDX,[EBX+EDI*4] INCEDI ADDEAX,EDX LOOPLOOPSTART MOVDOTPROD,EAX