Writing Processes, Tools and Techniques

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<p>EDUCATION IN A COMPETITIVE AND GLOBALIZING WORLD</p> <p>WRITING: PROCESSES, TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESNo part of this digital document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means. The publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this digital document, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained herein. This digital document is sold with the clear understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, medical or any other professional services.</p> <p>EDUCATION IN A COMPETITIVE AND GLOBALIZING WORLDAdditional books in this series can be found on Novas website at:</p> <p>https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/index.php?cPath=23_29&amp;seriesp= Education+in+a+Competitive+and+Globalizing+World</p> <p>Additional e-books in this series can be found on Novas website at: https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/index.php?cPath=23_29&amp;seriespe= Education+in+a+Competitive+and+Globalizing+World</p> <p>EDUCATION IN A COMPETITIVE AND GLOBALIZING WORLD</p> <p>WRITING: PROCESSES, TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES</p> <p>NATHAN L. MERTENSEDITOR</p> <p>Nova Science Publishers, Inc.New York</p> <p>Copyright 2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher. For permission to use material from this book please contact us: Telephone 631-231-7269; Fax 631-231-8175 Web Site: http://www.novapublishers.com</p> <p>NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers use of, or reliance upon, this material. Any parts of this book based on government reports are so indicated and copyright is claimed for those parts to the extent applicable to compilations of such works. Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in this book. In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise contained in this publication. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Writing : processes, tools and techniques / editor, Nathan L. Mertens. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-1-61728-235-5 (eBook) 1. English language--Composition and exercises--Study and teaching. 2. Motivation in education. I. Mertens, Nathan L. LB1576.W748 2010 808'.0071--dc22 2010012264</p> <p>Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York</p> <p>CONTENTSPreface Chapter 1 Methods, Techniques, and Tools for the On-line Study of the Writing Process Thierry Olive Stepwise Computer-Based Scaffolding for Academic Writing: How It Affects Writing Activities, Performance, and Motivation Antje Proske Readability Formulae, Cloze Tests, and Computerized Textual Analysis for Testing Language Skills: Are They Useful? John Ludbrook Strategies, Tools and Techniques for the Development of Written Communication Metasociocognitive Processes Rosario Arroyo Gonzlez and Coral Ivy Hunt Gmez Self-Assessment and Learning to Write Heidi L. Andrade and Georgia C. Brooke How Busy Clinicians Can Write Scholarly Papers John E. Mullinax, Jonathan M. Hernandez, Sharona B. Ross, Linda K. Barry and Alexander S. Rosemurgy, Teaching Undergraduates to Write Publishable Material John P. Canal Breaking the Rules: Writing Reflectively for Yourself John Cowan Developing the Self-Regulation of Writing Process in Students with Learning Disabilities Jess-Nicasio Garca and Raquel Fidalgo Cognitive Strategic and Self-Regulated Instruction in Writing Processes Raquel Fidalgo, Olga Arias-Gundn, Jess Nicasio Garca and Mark Torrance vii 1</p> <p>Chapter 2</p> <p>19</p> <p>Chapter 3</p> <p>39</p> <p>Chapter 4</p> <p>57 75 91</p> <p>Chapter 5 Chapter 6</p> <p>Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9</p> <p>101 109</p> <p>115</p> <p>Chapter 10</p> <p>129</p> <p>Index</p> <p>153</p> <p>PREFACEWriting is a complex and cognitively demanding activity. To be successful, writers need an understanding of the components of a quality test as well as knowledge of writing strategies that can be used to shape and organize the writing process. This new book discusses academic writing as a complex task which involves a variety of cognitive and metacognitive activities; a model for teaching writing strategies and the sociocultural processes of written communication; rubric-referenced self-assessment and the quality of elementary and middleschool students' writing and self-efficacy and others. Chapter 1- In the field of writing studies, the shift between the product-oriented approach to the process-oriented one has resulted not only in conceptual changes in the theories of writing, but also in development of methods and techniques that have enabled us to study the writing process. These real-time or on-line methods track the writing processes while they are operating in order to describe their time course and their functional characteristics. Generally, these methods focus on three features of writing: writing fluency through the analyses of pauses and execution periods, functional characteristics of the writing processes with thinking-aloud techniques, and their demands on working memory with dual-task designs. The most common tools used for that purpose are computers with digitizing tablets and keystroke recording programs. Moreover, recently, a new perspective has been opened by the analysis of the writers eye movement coupled to the analysis of the on-going text. Some scarce research has also attempted to investigate writing with brain imagery techniques. All these methods are shedding light on the cognitive operations necessary to compose a text. Consequently, the aim of this chapter is to provide readers with an overview of these methods and tools in order to figure out how to conceptualize and design new experiments. In parallel, through the presentation of these methods and of the tools that are required to implement them, this chapter also delineates the issues that are currently addressed in research on writing. Chapter 2- Academic writing is a complex task that involves a variety of cognitive and metacognitive activities. One approach to assist writers in dealing with the problem of managing their resources during writing is to scaffold writing by computer. Unfortunately, empirical research on computer-based scaffolding (CBS) of writing is quite limited, and the results are mixed. An explanation for these results may be found in the design of the scaffolding. Most CBS support discrete writing activities, independently from the writing process. This chapter seeks to contribute to the question of how to design CBS which supports the academic writing process as a whole. As a basis for the design, the subtask</p> <p>viii</p> <p>Nathan L. Mertens</p> <p>model of academic writing is presented which explicitly describes the demands of academic writing. This model is derived from theoretical and empirical findings on expert writing. The implementation of CBS for expert writing activities into the writing environment escribo is then described. The CBS stepwise supports the application of these expert writing activities. To this end, escribo decomposes the writing process in its subtasks and provides specific instruction and tools for the completion of each activity. Furthermore, two evaluation studies on the effects of the writing environment are summarized. The results show that working with escribo is superior to a situation without CBS. Implications of these results will be discussed with regard to the benefits and restrictions of fostering expert writing activities through computer-based scaffolding. Chapter 3- I describe nine popular readability formulae. These are designed to evaluate a piece of English text in terms of the age or grade level of school students at which it should be readable. By example and argument I conclude that these formulae are of only limited use: perhaps as a cheap and easy method for evaluating school textbooks and library holdings. The family of cloze tests is designed to evaluate grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension by making use of communication theory and the redundancy principle. The most popular are the classical cloze procedure and the C-test. Both are reasonably reliable, but the former is arguably the more valid. Both have been used in many countries and many languages as part of the testing of scholastic ability in the candidates native languages or in second languages, though using trained assessors remains the yardstick. The Coh-Metrix project examines the coherence of text according to 60 categories, but is still in the course of development and seems not to be flawless. Lexical analysis is a computer-intensive tool for evaluating the active vocabulary used in producing a piece of text. It provides an objective measure of the progress of students who are learning English, especially as a second language. It has also been used to evaluate the quality of English teachers and teaching. But though I am only an outsider looking in, I am forced to conclude that the only truly valid method for evaluating language skills is by trained human assessors. Chapter 4- This paper proposes a model for teaching writing strategies, tools and techniques within a new aim pursuit. The new objective is the simultaneous development of cognitive and sociocultural processes of written communication for the citizens of the 21st Century. This didactic model is justified by the exigencies of multicultural and technological societies. In order to enter the labour world, to have access to knowledge, information and social relation structures, current societies request two basic competences to their citizens: a) use and command of IT technologies and b) communication in different languages. Written verbal language in a multilingual and multimodal fashion is being given priority in the development of both competences. That is why the didactic model offers strategies with the aim of developing: 1) multimodal writing cognitive processes and operations, using the computer; 2) writing sociocultural processes using different languages, that is to say, in a multilingual way. To achieve simultaneously the already mentioned aims, the tools and techniques of the didactic model have to be creative. However, these aims, tools and techniques are based on the Metasociocognitive Model which explains written communication as the integration of cognitive and sociocultural processes. The Writing Metasociocultural Model is interactive focused on research and theoretical reflection about writing. It has been functioning since the 70s.</p> <p>Preface</p> <p>ix</p> <p>Also, the Creative, Shared Technological Model (CCT-Model) of Writing-Teaching, is based on the results of an ethnographic research project, concretely, a case study. In this project, writing-teaching is deeply studied applying the content analysis method and validation processes such as triangulation, saturation and crystallization. The new contribution covered in this project is the global approach offered of every possible variable interacting with the writer in a multicultural classroom. The conclusions of the case study allow to design strategies, tools and techniques to enhance the development of all writing processes, from a practical teaching point of view. Finally, sociocultural justification and theoretical research based documentation of the Writing-Teaching Model, support a future multimethod research, which is currently in process. This research project aims to the validation of a Writing-Teaching program (based on the already mentioned models), in multicultural samples of subjects, with control and experimental groups. The objectives of this project are, on the one hand, calculation of the effectiveness of the program and, on the other hand, analysing thoroughly the teaching process when applying writing tools. Chapter 5- This chapter reviews several recent studies of the relationships between rubric-referenced self-assessment and the quality of elementary and middle school students writing and self-efficacy for writing. The self-assessment process employed in each study emphasized the articulation of criteria and a carefully scaffolded process of review by students, followed by revision. Taken together, the studies show that rubric-referenced selfassessment is associated with more effective writing, as evidenced by higher total scores for essays written by students in the treatment condition, as well as higher scores for each of the criteria on the scoring rubric. The reviewed research also reveals an association between the treatment and the self-efficacy of girls for writing. The chapter includes a review of relevant literature, a detailed description of the process of self-assessment, a report on the studies, and a discussion of the implications for teaching and research. Chapter 6- Some of the difficulties busy clinicians face are time constraints and limitations on creativity. It is difficult to have a strong clinical focus and yet find the time and energy to devote toward scholarly productivity. Often, there seems to be insufficient time to put pen to paper. When time permits, creativity is often lacking because of fatigue or concerns about other issues. As the day-to-day responsibilities take their toll, it can be difficult to express the scholarly interest that serves as the foundation for an academic career. An interesting project or study can become lost in the shuffle of accomplishing more mundane tasks. This manuscript serves as a template to guide busy clinicians in writing papers of scholarly value. Input from surgeons at various levels of accomplishments and at wide ranging stations in their careers makes this of value to a broad audience. Our focus is on young academicians without notable experience in writing scholarly p...</p>